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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Max Rosenthal, M.D.

Visiting Physician, German Dispensary, New York City.

Contributions:
AGRICULTURAL COLONIES IN THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC (ARGENTINA) – Early Difficulties. Excepting certain settlements of Jewish farmers in Brazil referred to elsewhere (pp. 265, 266), agriculture among the Jews in South America has been confined to the Argentine colonies established by the...
AGRICULTURAL COLONIES IN CANADA – Agricultural activity among Jews in Canada is a sequel to Russo-Jewish immigration occasioned by persecution. The Mansion House Committee of London, England, the Jewish Colonization Association of Paris, and a local committee in...
AGRICULTURAL COLONIES IN THE UNITED STATES – With the exception of the partly successful experiment by thirteen Jewish families in the state of New York in 1837 (see below), Jewish agriculture and Agricultural Colonies in America are not of earlier date than the great...
BALTIC PROVINCES – The three Russian governments bordering the Baltic sea—Courland, Livonia, and Esthonia; belonging formerly to Sweden, with the exception of Courland, which was a dependency of Poland and came into possession of Russia, in part...
BARATZ, HERMAN (HIRSCH) – Russian lawyer and censor of Hebrew books; born at Dubno 1835; graduated from the Rabbinical School of Jitomir in 1859, and from the University of Kiev in 1869. In 1871 he was appointed by the governor-general of Kiev censor of...
BARDA – Formerly an important city (often mentioned by the Arabic geographers of the ninth and tenth centuries in connection with the invasions of the Russians in 880, 910, 914, and 943), now a Tatar village on the Terter river, in the...
BOGOLYUBSKI, ANDREI – First grand duke of Russia (1169-74). He conquered Kiev after the death of Vladimir Monomakh (1169), but selected the northern city of Vladimir as the capital of the kingdom. At that time Kiev was an important commercial center...
BORISOV – Town and district in the government of Minsk, Russia; situated on a peninsula on the left bank of the Beresina, about fifty miles from the capital. The Jewish population (1900) of the town was over 10,000 in a total of 18,348;...
BUDUSHCHNOST – Russo-Jewish weekly, established (1900) and edited by S. O. Gruzenberg. Like the "Voskhod," it gives valuableinformation concerning the history of the Jews and their social life and institutions; but while the former periodical...
CHERKASSY – District town in the government of Kiev, Russia, situated on the right bank of the Dnieper, about 126 miles from Kiev.The date of the establishment of the Jewish community of Cherkassy is not known. Being the chief town of the...
CHERNIGOV – A government of Little Russia (Ukraine), with a Jewish population (1897) of 114,630 in a total population of 2,298,834, or nearly 5 per cent. In 1881 the Jewish inhabitants formed only 2.5 per cent of the total. By districts,...
DAVIDOV, JULIUS – Russian physician; born at Goldingen, Courland, 1803; died at Moscow 1870. He graduated from the University of Dorpat in 1833, and practised medicine in his native town until 1838, when he removed to Moscow. At the time of his...
DEN – Russian Jewish weekly; published at Odessa (1869-71) by A. Zederbaum and I. Goldenblum, and edited by S. Ornstein. Among its collaborators were M. Morgulis, I. G. Orshanski, and L. Levanda.G. M. R.
DILLON, ELIEZER – Russian army contractor; born at Nesvizh, government of Minsk, in the second half of the eighteenth century; died at Wilna June 25, 1838. He received a good education, which was rather unusual among the Jews of Lithuania at that...
DRISSA – Russian city in the government of Vitebsk. The population in 1897 was 4,237, of whom 2,856 were Jews. There were 657 artisans (including 229 masters) and 158 day-laborers. Among its charitable institutions may be noted the...
EHRLICH, MESHULLAM – Polish philologist; born at Lublin 1818; died at Paris 1861. He was one of the leading Talmudic scholars of his time, as well as a master of Oriental and modern languages. His numerous works all remain in manuscript, with the...
GADEN, STEPHAN (DANIEL) VON – Russian physician at the court of Moscow under the czars Alexis Mikhailovich and Feodor Alekseyevich; born in Poland, of Jewish parents, in the first quarter of the seventeenth century; killed at Moscow during the first uprising...
GRODNO – Russian city; capital of the government of the same name; formerly one of the chief cities of Lithuania and, later, of Poland. It had a Jewish community about the middle of the fourteenth century, for in the "Privilege" granted...
GÜNZBURG, HORACE, BARON – Russian philanthropist; born Feb. 8, 1833, in Zvenigorodka, government of Kiev, Russia, where he received his education. After the Crimean war his father, Joseph Günzburg, then a wealthy merchant and army contractor, settled...
HERZENSTEIN, GRIGORI MARKOVICH – Russian physician; born in St. Petersburg 1851; died there 1899. He graduated from the St. Petersburg Medico-Surgical Academy in 1874 and from 1887 was an adjunct professor there of medical geography and statistics. His main and...
HERZENSTEIN, SOLOMON MARKOVICH – Russian zoologist; born 1854; died 1894; graduated in natural sciences and mathematics from the St. Petersburg University; appointed in 1880 custodian of the zoological museum of the Imperial Academy of Science. He was...
HURWITZ, PHINEHAS ELIJAH – Hebrew writer; born in Wilna; died in Cracow in 1812. While a youth he went to Buchach, a hamlet in Galicia, where he began his "Sefer ha-Berit," which afterward became widely known. Nachman Reiss, a wealthy philanthropist in...
KHIN, RACHEL MIRONOVNA – Russian authoress; born in White Russia in 1863; educated at the Women's gymnasium, Moscow; studied medicine at St. Petersburg and history and literature at Paris. Her novels and sketches first appeared in the "Vyestnik...
KISHINEF (KISHINEV) – Russian city; capital of the government of Bessarabia; it has a population of 147,962 (1904), including about 50,000 Jews. The Jewish community of Kishinef has taken an important part in the commercial and industrial growth of...
KOVNER, SAVELI GRIGORYEVICH – Russian physician; born at Wilna 1837; died at Kiev Sept. 22, 1896; graduated from the University of St. Vladimir, Kiev, in 1865. He remained at the same university as a stipendiary to prepare for a professorship, but in 1867...