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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Mary W. Montgomery, Ph.D.

New York City.

Contributions:
DAVID – David Consoles Saul. —Biblical Data: Second King of Israel; according to I Chron. ii. 15, the youngest of the seven sons of Jesse the Bethlehemite; or, according to I Sam. xvi. 10 et seq., xvii. 12, the youngest of eight sons....
EDEN, GARDEN OF – Biblical Data: Name given to the "earthly paradise" occupied by Adam and Eve before their fall through sin. The word "Eden," perhaps an Assyrian loan-word, is of the same root as the Assyrian "edinu," synonymous with "ṣeru" (=...
GOG AND MAGOG – Biblical Data: Magog is mentioned (Gen. x. 2; I Chron. i. 5) as the second son of Japheth, between Gomer and Madai. Gomer representing the Cimmerians and Madai the Medes, Magog must be a people located east of the Cimmerians and...
JOSEPH – Sold as Slave. —Biblical Data: Eleventh son of Jacob and the elder of the two sons of Rachel; born at Haran (Gen. xxx. 24). The meaning given to the name (l.c.) is "shall add": "The Lord shall add to me another son." It seems...
KAHIYA – Title of a political representative in Turkey. The word, pronounced "kehya" or "kyahya," is Turkish and is a corruption of the Persian "ketkhoda." It means "head man," or representative in a small village where the people...
ḲASMUNAH – Jewish poetess, Andalusian by birth; lived in the twelfth or thirteenth century and wrote in Arabic. Al-Maḳḳari included her in his list of Arabian poets in Spain. According to him Ḳasmunah's father, Ishmael, also was a poet and...
MEDINA – Second sacred city of Islam; situated in the Hijaz in Arabia, about 250 miles north of Mecca. It is celebrated as the place to which the Hegira (Mohammed's flight from Mecca) was directed, and as the capital and burial-place of...
MICHAEL – Israel's Advocate. One of the archangels one of the chief princes"; Dan. x. 13), who is also represented as the tutelary prince of Israel (ib. x. 21, xii. 1). The signification of the name (= "Who islike El"?) was recognized by...
MOHAMMED – Early Years. Founder of Islam and of the Mohammedan empire; born at Mecca between 569 and 571 of the common era; died June, 632, at Medina. Mohammed was a posthumous child and lost his mother when he was six years old. He then...
MOHAMMED – Early Years. Founder of Islam and of the Mohammedan empire; born at Mecca between 569 and 571 of the common era; died June, 632, at Medina. Mohammed was a posthumous child and lost his mother when he was six years old. He then...
NOAH – Biblical Data: Son of Lamech and the ninth in descent from Adam. In the midst ofabounding corruption he alone was "righteous and blameless in his generations" and "walked with God" (Gen. vi. 9). Hence, when all his...
OMAR I. (IBN AL-KHAṬṬAB) – Second calif; succeeded Abu Bakr in 634 C.E.; assassinatedin 644. Omar I. was the great champion and organizer of Islam, and through his force of character and his influence over Mohammed and Abu Bakr he ruled long before he...
PARADISE – Biblical Data: The word "paradise" is probably of Persian origin. It occurs but three times in the Old Testament, namely, in Cant. iv. 13, Eccl. ii. 5, and Neh. ii. 8. In the first of these passages it means "garden"; in the...
SA'D AL-DAULAH – Jewish physician and statesman; grand vizier from 1289 to 1291 under the Mongolian ruler in Persia, Argun Khan; assassinated March 5, 1291; son of Hibbat Allah b. Muḥasib of Ebher (Hammer-Purgstall, "Gesch. der Ilchane," i. 382)...
SAMUEL IBN 'ADIYA – Poet and warrior; lived in Arabia in the first half of the sixth century. His mother was of the royal tribe of Ghassan, while his father, according to some, was descended from Aaron, or, according to others, from Kahin, son of...
SARAH (SARAI) – Biblical Data: Wife of Abraham, who for a long period remained childless (Gen. xi. 29-30). She accompanied her husband from Haran to Canaan (ib. xii. 5). Driven by famine to take refuge in Egypt, Abraham, fearing that her beauty...
SOLOMON – Third king of all Israel; reigned from about 971 to 931 B.C ; second son of David and Bath-sheba (II Sam. xii. 23-25). He was called Jedidiah (= "beloved of Yhwh") by Nathan the prophet, the Chronicler (I Chron. xxii. 9)...
TURKEY – Empire of southeastern Europe and western Asia. For present purposes Turkey is taken to mean that part of Europe which is directly under Ottoman rule, Asia Minor, the islands of the Archipelago, and Mesopotamia. Syria and...