The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Erik Stave, Ph.D.

Professor of Theology at the University of Upsala, Sweden.

ÆSHMA (ASMODEUS, ASHMEDAI) – His Function. In the Mazdian religion the chief of the dævas, or demons. Though the oldest sections of the Avesta—the Gathas—present Æshma mainly as an abstract conception, still, in passages here and there, he is represented in...
AHRIMAN – In the Mazdian religion, the evil deity, who has his real opposite in Spenta Mainyu, "the beneficent [holy] spirit." The latter was identified at a later period, if not originally, with Ahuramazda. Ahriman would seem to have...