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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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S. Kahn,

Rabbi, Nîmes, France.

Contributions:
PONTOISE – French town; capital of an arrondissement in the department of Seine-et-Oise. It contained a Jewish community as early as the eleventh century. In 1179 (according to some authorities, in 1166 or 1171) the Jews of Pontoise were...
POSQUIÈRES – Town in the department of the Gard, France, where Jews are known to have lived since the twelfth century. When Benjamin of Tudela visited the city, about 1165, the community was composed of forty members, among whom he mentions...
PROVENCE – Province of ancient France lying between the Rhone, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Maritime Alps, although medieval Jewish scholars frequently applied the name to a portion of Bas-Languedoc (Menahem Me'iri, introductionto "Bet...
PROVINS – French town, in the department of Seine-et-Marne. Jews were settled there as early as the twelfth century. Thibaut, Count of Champagne, made an agreement with Provins in 1230 in which he reserved to himself all rights over the...
ROUSSILLON – Province of ancient France, now forming the department of Pyrénées-Orientales. Jews settled there in the early part of the thirteenth century, and formed congregations at Perpignam, Collioure, Céret, Millas, Ille, Puigcerda,...
SAINT-GILLES – Town of France, in the department of Gard, about eleven miles south-southeast of Nîmes. It was an important commercial center in the twelfth century. When Benjamin of Tudela visited the town it possessed a Jewish community...
SAINT-SYMPHORIEN D'OZON – Town in the ancient province of Dauphiné, France. In the fourteenth century it had a large and wealthy Jewish community, to which the dauphin Charles granted (1355) important privileges; for this a special impost was paid...
TARASCON – City in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône, France. In 1276 King Charles I. intervened in behalf of its Jews against the inquisitors, who had obliged them to enlarge the wheel-shaped badge worn by them, and had extorted large...
TODROS OF BEAUCAIRE – 1 (called Ha-Ḳaẓin). One of the chief poets of the second half of the thirteenth century; resided in Montpellier. In 1277 he was one of the five representatives of theJewish community to which James II. of Aragon granted a...
TODROS OF CAVAILLON – French physician of the latter part of the fourteenth century, who flourished, according to Carmoly, about 1375. He was the author of a treatise entitled "Sha'are ha-Harkabot" (MSS. Paris, No. 1191, 1; Cat. p. 219), a sort of...
TODROS BEN MOSES YOM-ṬOB – French physician; flourished at Cavaillon in the second half of the fourteenth century; identified by Steinschneider with Todros of Cavaillon. In 1394 he prepared a Hebrew translation of a Latin treatise on fever by Johanan ibn...
TOUL – Capital of an arrondissement in the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, France, with a Jewish population dating from the thirteenth century. Among the scholars who were once residents of this city may be mentioned R. Eliezer of...
TOULON – Capital of an arrondissement in the department of the Var, France. Like most of the principal cities of Provence, Toulon contained a Jewish community in medieval times; and under the counts of Provence the Jews of the city fared...
TOULOUSE – Capital of the department of Haute-Garonne, France, where a large number of Jews lived as early as the beginning of the eighth century. In conformity with an old custom, and in punishment for some fancied crime, one of their...
TOURS – Capital of the department of Indre-et-Loire, France. Since the first half of the sixth century Jews have lived either in the city or in its environs, especially in Civray. About the year 580 a Jewish tax-gatherer of Tours named...
TRÉVOUX – Principal town of the arrondissement of the same name in the department of Ain, France. Henry of Villars, Archbishop of Lyons and seignior of Trévoux, stipulated in the charter which he gave to the latter town in 1300 that no...
TRINQUETAILLE – Suburb of Arles, France, on the right bank of the Rhone. Its Jewish community was of much importance in the Middle Ages. Favorably received by the lords of Baux, the Jews lived peacefully at Trinquetaille until 1300, when the...
TROYES – Capital of the department of Aube, France. It contained a Jewish population as early as the tenth century, as is clear from a responsum addressed to the community of Troyes about the year 1000 by Judah ben Meïr ("Sire Léontin")...
UZÈS – Town of France, in the department of Gard, about 15 miles north-northeast of Nîmes. Jews were settled there as early as the fifth century. St. Ferréol, Bishop of Uzès, admitted them to his table and enjoyed their friendship. On...
VALENCE – Chief town of the department of the Drome and former capital of the county of Valentinois in the ancient province of Dauphiné, France. Several Jewish families that had been expelled from the Comtat-Venaissin in 1323 sought...
VENTURE, MARDOCHÉE – French scholar; flourished at Avignon in the latter part of the eighteenth century. In collaboration with Isaiah Vidal he composed the "Seder ha-Ḳonṭres" (Avignon, 1765), a collection of liturgical chants for the use of the Jews...
VERDUN – Capital of the department of Meuse, France. Jews resided there from the twelfth century; and among the scholars of the city may be mentioned the tosafist Samuel b. Ḥayyim (Tosef., Yeb. 65a, 66b; Tosef., M. Ḳ. 23a; Tosef., B. Ḳ....
VESOUL – Capital of the department of Haute-Saône, France. Jews first settled there in the latter part of the thirteenth century, under the leadership of Ḥayyim b. Jacob, who was a correspondent of Ḥayyim b. Isaac Or Zarua', one of the...
VIENNE – Town in the ancient province of Dauphiné, France. Jews dwelt there as early as the tenth century (Gross, "Gallia Judaica," p. 191). They lived in a special quarter, still (1905) called "the Jewry," and in the thirteenth century...
ẒARFATI, ẒAREFATI – Epithet frequently applied in rabbinical literature to Jews of French birth or descent. Among those so called may be mentioned: Meïr Ẓarfati, whom Carmoly sought to identify with the Meïr ha-Kohen of Narbonne who emigrated to...