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Samuel Krauss, Ph.D.

Professor, Normal College, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
ADAMANTIUS – Jewish physician, author, and naturalist (ἰατρικ࿶ν λόγων σοφιστής; see Socrates, "Hist. Eccl." vii. 13); lived in Alexandria in the fourth century. He prepared an abridgment, in two volumes, of the Φυσιογνωμικά, a work on...
AFRICA – Biblical Age. The Bible has no general name for Africa, any more than it has for Europe or Asia. The word "Ham," from the Hebrew root (to be hot), which is applied in the later Psalms (lxxviii. 51; cv. 23, 27; cvi. 22) to Egypt,...
ALABARCH – The title of an official who stood at the head of the Jewish population of Alexandria during the Grecian period. The etymology of the word ἀλαβάρχης (alabarches), and, therefore, the original nature of the office, is obscure. In...
ALBINUS – Roman procurator of Judea from 61 to 64 (Jos. "Ant." xx. 9, § 1). While on his way from Alexandria to his new post he was met by a delegation of Jews, who demanded the punishment of the high priest Ananias. Albinus sent him a...
ALEXANDER LYSIMACHUS – Alabarch; brother of the philosopher Philo, and father of Julius Alexander and Tiberius Julius Alexander. He held office under the emperors Tiberius and Claudius. He was imprisoned by Caligula, but was released and restored to...
ALEXANDER SEVERUS – Roman emperor from 222 to 235; was especially friendly to both Jews and Christians. It was on this account, and not because of his Syrian descent, that the mocking inhabitants of Antioch and Alexandria, while celebrating their...
ALEXANDER, TIBERIUS JULIUS – Roman general of the first century; son of the alabarch Alexander, who gave him the name of Tiberius, probably in honor of the emperor Tiberius; but he himself assumed the name of Julius out of compliment to the reigning family...
ALEXANDRIUM – A fortified castle in Palestine, situated on one of the mountains between Scythopolis and Jerusalem, and, judging from its name, probably founded by King Alexander Jannæus (104-77 B.C.). Alexandra kept her treasures at...
ANTIOCH – Early Settlement of Jews. Ancient capital of Syria, situated in the northern part of that country, fifty-seven miles west of Aleppo, on the left bank of the river Orontes, about fifteen miles above its mouth. Antioch was founded...
ANTONIA – Ruins of the Antonia Fortress, Jerusalem.(From Stade, "Geschichte Israels.")The younger daughter of the triumvir Mark Antony and sister-in-law of Tiberius. She was on friendly terms with Berenice (the daughter of Salome) and...
APAMEA – Among the many towns bearing this name, the following are of importance with reference to Jews:1. Capital of the province of Apamene, Syria; situated on the Orontes, south of Antioch. Like the other cities of Syria (Josephus,...
APHRODITE – Greek name for the goddess of love. Among Orientals, addicted to sensuality, she was worshiped under many forms and figures. The word 'Aφρōδίτη (Aphtoret, Aphrotet, Aphrodet), which can not be satisfactorily derived from Greek,...
ARCADIUS – Byzantine emperor from 395 to 408. He was too weak a ruler to be able to withstand the influence exerted by his court favorites upon his policy toward the Jews. Such privileges as were accorded them were due to his privy...
ARIANISM – Among the Goths. A heresy of the Christian Church, started by Arius, bishop of Alexandria (d. 336), who taught that the Son is not equivalent to the Father (όμοούστος = consubstantialis), thereby provoking a serious schism in...
ASS-WORSHIP – The accusation that Jews worshiped the ass was for four centuries persistently made by certain Greek and Latin writers.Various Authors of the Calumny. (1) Mnaseas of Patras (second century B.C.) is quoted by Josephus ("Contra...
BABYLON – Biblical Data: The chief city of Babylonia, long the capital of the kingdom and empire that controlled the whole or a large part of the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates.In Hebrew Tradition. This city has several names or...
BABYLONIA – General Data: A country in western Asia of varying limits at different periods. The natural boundaries were the Persian gulf on the south, the Tigris on the east, and the Arabian desert on the west. On the north the boundary...
BACCHIDES – Syrian general; friend of the Syrian king Demetrius; and "ruler in the country beyond the river"—Euphrates. Demetrius sent him in 161 B.C. to Judea with a large army, in order to invest the recreant Alcimus with the office of...
BAGOAS – 1. General of the Persian king Artaxerxes Ochus (359-338 B.C.); is called "Bagoses" by Josephus ("Ant." xi. 7, § 1). He interfered in the Jewish party struggles, and forced an entrance into the sanctuary. 2. Eunuch of Herod the...
BANUS – A teacher of Josephus ("Vita," § 2, Bάνος; in ed. Niese, Bάννος). He "lived in the desert, used no other clothing than grew upon trees, had no other food than what grew of its own accord, and bathed himself in cold water...
BAPTISM – A religious ablution signifying purification or consecration. The natural method of cleansing the body by washing and bathing in water was always customary in Israel (see Ablution, Bathing). The washing of their clothes was an...
BAR GIORA, SIMON – Jewish leader in the revolt against Rome; born about the year 50, at Gerasa. To judge from his name he was the son of a proselyte. The date of his birth is determined by the fact that he wasvery young at the time of the war with...
BAR KOKBA AND BAR KOKBA WAR – War of Quietus. The insurrection of the Jews of Cyrene, Cyprus, and Egypt in the last years of the emperor Trajan had not been entirely suppressed when Hadrian assumed the reins of government in 118. The seat of war was...
BARBARY STATES – A region comprising the northwest of Africa from the Mediterranean to the Sahara, including Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli. The words "Barbaria" ( ) and "Barbarians" ( ) are found in the Midrash; in Gen. R. lx. the...
BATHYRA – Fortress and city founded by Zamaris, a distinguished Jew of Babylon, who about the year 20 crossed the Euphrates with 500 mounted archers, and requested a dwelling-place from the Roman governor of Syria, Cn. Sentius Saturninus....