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Samuel Krauss, Ph.D.

Professor, Normal College, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
BATHYRA – A family whose name is probably identical with that of the city of Bathyra. The name is so rare that all persons called "Bathyra" in the Talmud and Midrash are included in the one family, although there are no data to prove...
BEIRUT, SYRIA – City in Phenicia, at the mouth of the river of the same name, on the Mediterranean between Byblus and Sidon. In the El-Amarna texts (Winckler, "Altorientalische Forschungen," i. 309, 436; "Monatsschrift," 1898, xlii. 480) the...
BEN-BAṬIAḤ – 1. A man, at the time of the teachers of the Mishnah ("'Aruk," s.v. ), whose fist, being about the size of an adult's head, was used as a standard of measurement (Kelim xvii.; Bek. 37b; compare hip-bone of the giant king Og,...
BENJAMIN OF TIBERIAS – A rich Jew who, when the emperor Heraclius in 628 went to Jerusalem during the Persian war, was accused of hostility toward the Christians. This accusation probably implied that he sided with the Persians. Notwithstanding this...
BETH-SHE'ARIM – According to rabbinic accounts, the Sanhedrin was destined to pass through ten exiles during the period 30-170, and to be compelled to wander from place to place. One of its stations was to be the city of Beth-she'arim, in which...
BETHAR – City in Palestine, scene of the war of Bar Kokba (132-135), and mentioned as such in Mishnah Ta'anit iv. 6; Yer. Ta'anit 69a; Babli Ta'anit 26b, 29a; Lam. R. to chaps. ii. 2 and iv. 8; Yer. Ber. 3d; Tosef., Yeb. xiv. 8; Bab....
BETURIA, PAULINA – Roman proselyte to Judaism (about the year 50), known under the name "Sarah," who, according to her Latin epitaph, was eighty-six years and six months old at the time of her death. For sixteen years she was a Jewess, a mother of...
BILGAH – Biblical Data: One of the twenty-four divisions of the priests who officiated in the Temple. According to I Chron. xxiv. 14, Bilgah is the fifteenth in order, and is immediately preceded by that of Jeshebeab. Among the...
BYZANTINE EXPIRE – Name given to the eastern division of the Roman empire. On May 11, 330, Constantinople became the capital of the Roman empire, and the Greek Orient thereafter developed independently. In these countries of the Eastern empire,...
CÆSAREA – 1. Cæsarea by the Sea: Ancient city of Palestine; called in early times "Strato's Tower" (Στράτωνος πύργος, Josephus, "Ant." xiii. 11, § 2; xiv. 4, § 4; xv. 8, § 5; xix. 8, § 2; idem, "B. J." i. 3, § 4; i. 21, § 5; Strabo, xvi....
CAIAPHAS – a Greek word; in the Hebrew original, probably not , but ; compare Mishnah Parah iii. 5; Derenbourg, "Essai sur I'Histoire de la Palestine," p. 215, note 2; Schürer, "Gesch." 3d ed., ii. 218; Josephus, "Antiquities of the Jews,"...
CAMEL – The well-known ruminant, native in Asia and Africa. The word "camel" (Hebrew, , gamal) is the same in the Assyrian, Samaritan, Aramaic, Syriac, Arabic, Egyptian, and Ethiopic languages. Together with the knowledge of the animal,...
CAPPADOCIA – Ancient province of Asia Minor. It was known to the Jews in its Greek form also, and is often mentioned in the Talmud and the Midrash. The Roman province Cappadocia extended from the Taurus to the Euxine, and from the Halys to...
CARACALLA – Roman emperor (211-217); son of Septimius Severus. It is said that as a boy of seven he had a Jewish playfellow, and having heard that the latter had been cruelly whipped on account of his religion, he could not for a long time...
CARCASS – Pollution from Carcass. —Biblical Data: The carcass of a clean animal that had not been properly slaughtered, or that of an unclean animal of the land, the water, or the air, polluted until the evening the person who touched it...
CARCASS – Pollution from Carcass. —Biblical Data: The carcass of a clean animal that had not been properly slaughtered, or that of an unclean animal of the land, the water, or the air, polluted until the evening the person who touched it...
CARTHAGE – Ancient city and republic in northern Africa; of special interest to Jews on account of the Phenico-Semitic origin of its inhabitants, its government under the suffetes, recalling the "shofeṭim" (judges) among the Hebrews, and...
CASSIUS LONGINUS – Questor of Crassus in Syria in 53 B.C. After the unfortunate battle of Carrhæ, Syria, he became independent governor of the province, clearing it of the Parthians, and traversing all parts of the country in order to reestablish...
CATACOMBS – Underground galleries with excavations in their sides for tombs or in which human bones are stacked. The term is derived from "catacomba," a compound of the Greek κατά and the Latin "comba" ("cumba"), and means "near the...
CELSUS – Greek polemical writer against Christianity; flourished in the second century. He was the first pagan who denounced Christianity, and in his work, "The True Word" (Λόγος 'ΛληΘής), he attempted not only to refute but to ridicule...
CHÆREMON – Stoic philosopher and anti-Jewish writer (Origen, "Contra Celsum," i. 59; Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." vi. 19), Egyptian priest (Porphyry, "De Abstinentia," iv. 6-8; Jerome, "Adversus Jovinianum Libri II.," ii. 13), teacher of Nero...
CHARES – Leader of the Zealots in the Judæo-Roman war, and one of the most eminent men of Gamala (Josephus, "B. J." iv. 1, § 9). When the men of Bathyra, "called the Babylonians," who sided with Agrippa and the peace party, were at...
CHURCH FATHERS – Their Importance to Judaism. The early teachers and defenders of Christianity. The most important of the fathers lived and worked in a period when Christianity still had many points of contact with Judaism, and they found that...
CICERO, MARCUS TULLIUS – Roman statesman and orator; born 106; died 43 B.C. In 59 he delivered in the Aurelian Forum at Rome a speech in behalf of Flaccus, in which he spoke disparagingly of the Jews; this was perhaps not from conviction so much as in...
CILICIA – Name and Situation. Ancient province of southeastern Asia Minor, separated from Syria by the Taurus-Amanus range. In native Phenician inscriptions the name is given as or (Lidzbarski, "Handbuch der Nordsemitischen Epigraphik,"...