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Samuel Krauss, Ph.D.

Professor, Normal College, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
JUDAH (Coadjutor of Josephus) – The Sanhedrin of Jerusalem commissioned Judah and Joezar to assist Josephus (66 C.E.) in pacifying the people and inducing them to lay down their arms. Josephus at first calls them noble men ("Vita," § 7), but afterward remarks...
JUDAH (Jewish Prince) – Son of Simeon Tharsi. When Antiochus VII., Sidetes, sent his general Cendebæus against Simeon, the latter, too old for war, gave the command to his two sons Judah and John, who valiantly executed the commission. After a short...
JUDAH B. ZIPPORI – Instigator of an uprising against Herod the Great. Shortly before the latter's death two prominent scribes of Jerusalem, one of whom was Judah b. Zippori (Josephus, "Ant." xvii. 6, § 2, has Σαριφαῖος; "B. J." i. 33, § 2, has...
JUDAS MACCABEUS – Son of the priest Mattathias, and, after his father's death, leader against the Syrians. When he entered on the war he must have been in the prime of his manhood. At first he did not fight pitched battles, but made unexpected...
JULIANUS – Leader of a Samaritan rebellion at Nablus in 530 against the Romans; son of Samaron or Sabarona or, according to another reading, Sahir. Julianus took the title of king or emperor, and wore a diadem and other insignia of...
JULIUS ARCHELAUS – Son of Chelcias ("Ant." xix. 9, § 1; xx. 7, § 1 [without "Julius"]), and, to judge from his name, a Hellenized Jew, probably of a rich and noble family. He was chosen by King Agrippa I. as husband for his first daughter,...
JUSTIN MARTYR – Church Father, who in his works, written in Greek (the Διάλογος πρὸς Τρυφῶνα and Ἀπολογία are cited here as "Dial." and "Ap." respectively), makes frequent mention of the Jews and Judaism. He was born about the year 100 at...
JUSTINIAN – Rebellion of the Samaritans. Emperor of the Eastern, or Byzantine, Empire from 527 to 565. During his long reign he issued many decrees relating to the Jews, and his empire was the scene of bloody events which were of the...
JUSTUS OF TIBERIAS – With Josephus in Galilee. Historical writer and one of the leaders of the Jews against the Romans in Galilee in the year 66. What is known of him comes mostly from his political and literary enemy, Josephus Flavius; so that an...
LAMPON – Enemy of the Jews; lived in the first century at Alexandria. During the reign of Caligula an outbreak against the Jews occurred at Alexandria in the year 38, which Flaccus, then governor of Egypt, made no attempt to check. Philo...
LAODICEA – 1. Laodicea ad Lycum: Town in Phrygia on the River Lycus. Jews lived there, Antiochus the Great having transported 2,000 Jewish families from Babylonia to Phrygia (Josephus, "Ant." xii. 3, § 4). Flaccus ordered the confiscation...
LEONTOPOLIS – Place in the nome of Heliopolis, Egypt, situated 180 stadia from Memphis; famous as containing a Jewish sanctuary, the only one outside of Jerusalem where sacrifices were offered. Aside from a somewhat uncertain allusion of the...
LIBYA – District in the north of Africa. The name "Libya" was often used by the ancients, sometimes to designate the whole of northern Africa (with the exception of Egypt), sometimes to denote a single province west of Egypt. According...
LUCUAS – Toward the end of the reign of the emperor Trajan, in 116, the Jews of Cyrene rebelled, their leader being Lucuas according to Eusebius ("Hist. Eccl." iv. 2), Andreias according to Dio Cassius (lxviii. 32). These two statements...
LYSIAS – Syrian statesman of royal descent; died 162 B.C. (I Macc. iii. 32; Josephus, "Ant." xii. 7, § 2). When Antiochus Epiphanes undertook a campaign against the Parthians in 166-165, he appointed Lysias regent and guardian of his...
MACEDONIA – Country of southeastern Europe; now a part of the Turkish empire. It is the native country of Alexander the Great, who is, therefore, called "Alexander the Macedonian" in rabbinical writings. In Dan. xi. 30 the Macedonians are...
MACHÆRUS – Mountain fortress in Peræa, on the boundary between Palestine and Arabia. Alexander Jannæus first built a fortification there (Josephus, "B. J." vii. 6, § 2). His wife Salome Alexandra turned over to the Sadducean party all the...
MAGDALA – Town in Palestine in the province of Galilee; probably the birthplace of Mary Magdalene. There is a Talmudic sentence which declares that Magdala was destroyed (by the Romans) on account of its immorality (Lam. R. ii. 2). Jesus...
MARIAMNE – 1. Wife of Herod the Great; the first of this name. She was the daughter of the Hasmonean Alexander, a son of Aristobulus II., who was conquered and put to flight by Herod's father, Antipater. Her mother was Alexandra, daughter...
MASADA – Strong mountain fortress in Palestine, not far west of the Dead Sea. The fortress was built by the high priest Jonathan (a statement which Schürer upon insufficient grounds holds to be false), who also gave it its name...
MATTATHIAS MACCABEUS – The originator of the Maccabean rebellion. His genealogy is given as follows in the First Book of Maccabees, the most authentic source: "Mattathias, the son of John, the son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joiarib, from...
MATTHIAS BEN MARGALOT – Associated with Judah ben Zippori in the instigation of an uprising against Herod the Great (Josephus, "Ant." xvii. 6, § 2; idem, "B. J." i. 33, § 2). See Judah ben Zippori.S. S. Kr.
MATTHIAS BEN THEOPHILUS – Name of two high priests. 1. The successor of Simon ben Boethus, and, unlike the other high priests appointed by Herod, who were foreigners, a native of Jerusalem (Josephus, "Ant." xvii. 4, § 2). On the eve of a Day of...
MENANDER – 1. Putative author of a collection of proverbs, in a Syriac manuscript in the British Museum, edited in 1862 by Land, and bearing the superscription, "The sage Menander said." Either this Menander was a real person, a...
METALS – Although Deut. viii. 9 describes the Promised Land as one rich in ore, Palestine itself was really almost without metals, which had to be imported from neighboring countries. The passage in question is therefore taken by certain...