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Samuel Krauss, Ph.D.

Professor, Normal College, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
PTOLEMY – 1. Prince (tetrarch) of Iturea and Chalcis from about 85 to 40 B.C., in which year he died; son of Mennæus. He tried to extend his kingdom by warlike expeditions (Strabo, xvi. 2, § 10); and ruled the Lebanon, threatened...
PTOLEMY I – At first satrap (322-307 B.C.), then king (305-285), of Egypt. He founded the dynasty of the Ptolemies, which, from his father's name, is also called that of the Lagi. Λαγώς means "hare"; and a rabbinical tradition relates that...
PTOLEMY II – King of Egypt from 285 to 247 B.C. He continued the struggle for Cœle-Syria and Palestine and established himself permanently in possession of those countries about 274. Like all Diadochi, he took, pleasure in building cities;...
PTOLEMY III – King of Egypt from 247 to 222 B.C.; referred to in Dan. xi. 7-9. According to that passage, the Egyptian king made great conquests in Syria, which statement is confirmed by external authorities. The idols of the conquered,...
PTOLEMY IV – King of Egypt from 222 to 205 B.C.; hero of the events described in Dan. xi. 11-12. The passage in question refers to battles between him and Antiochus the Great, more especially the decisive battle at Raphia (217 B.C.), in...
PTOLEMY V – King of Egypt from 205 to 182 B.C. He was a child of five when he came to the throne. The protracted struggle for the possession of Cœle-Syria and Palestine was now finally decided in favor of the Syrians. Antiochus the Great...
PTOLEMY VII – Is Dethroned. King of Egypt from 182 to 146 B.C.; eldest son of Ptolemy V. With him the power over Egypt passes into unworthy hands. Philometor was still a child when he came to the throne, the Jewish philosopher Aristobulus of...
PTOLEMY IX – King of Egypt from 146 to 117 B.C. After the death of Ptolemy Philometor, his brother, Euergetes II., tried to overthrow his widow and successor, Cleopatra, whose army was commanded by the Jewish general Onias (Josephus, "Contra...
PTOLEMY MACRON – General of King Antiochus Epiphanes of Syria; sent by the prefect Lysins with two other generals, Nicanor and Gorgias, to fight against the Jews under the Maccabees. In I Macc. iii. 38, II Macc. iv. 45, and in Josephus, "Ant."...
QUADRATUS, UMMIDIUS CAIUS – Roman governor of Syria from 50 to 60 C.E. The procurator Cumanus had showed partiality to the Samaritans, who were at variance with the Galileans, and both parties appealed to Quadratus. The governor went to Samaria in 52 and...
QUIETUS, LUSIUS – Roman general and governor of Judea in 117 C.E. Originally a Moorish prince, his military ability won him the favor of Trajan, who even designated him as his successor. During the emperor's Parthian campaign the numerous Jewish...
QUIRINIUS, P. SULPICIUS – Roman governor of Syria about 6 C.E., with whose name are associated events and problems of great importance. After the banishment of Archelaus in the year 6, a date confirmed by Dio Cassius (lv. 27), Judea came under the direct...
REUBEN BEN STROBILUS – Jew of the second century C.E.; eminent both as a scholar and for the part he took in the affairs of his time. From references to the religious persecutions which he endeavored to terminate it would appear that he became...
RUFINA – Smyrna Jewess; lived about the third century of the common era. Her name has been perpetuated in a Smyrniot Greek inscription which is unusually important for a knowledge of the Jewish culture of the period. Translated, the text...
RUFUS – Roman general in the first century of the common era. In the battles after Herod's death the Romans were assisted against the Jews by the 3,000 "men of Sebaste," the flower of the royal army and a troop which afterward became...
RUFUS, TINEIUS – Governor of Judea in the first century of the common era. Jerome, on Zech. viii. 16, has "T. Annius Rufus," and the editor, Vallarsi, conjectures that the full prænomen is "Tyrannius," a name which would correspond to the of...
SAPHIR, SIGMUND – Hungarian journalist; born in Hungary 1806 (according to some, 1801); died at Pesth Oct. 17, 1866. He edited several German papers in that city, among them the "Pesther Tageblatt" (1839-45), to which his uncle, the humorist,...
SCOPUS – An elevation seven stadia north of Jerusalem, where, according to tradition, the high priest and the inhabitants of the city welcomed Alexander the Great (Josephus, "Ant." xi. 8, § 5). Josephus states that the place was called...
SEBASTUS – The port of Cæsarea on the Mediterranean Sea. Cæsarea itself, which Herod hadmade an important seaport, received its name in honor of Julius Cæsar, while the harbor proper was called "Sebastus" as a tribute to the Emperor...
SELEUCIDÆ – Powerful Syrian dynasty, which exercised an influence on the history of the Jews for two centuries (312-112 B.C.).Seleucus I., Nicator ("the victorious"): Founder of the line; born about 357; died about 280. He was one of the...
SENECA, LUCIUS ANNÆUS – Stoic philosopher; born about 6 B.C.; died 65 C.E.; teacher of Nero. Like other Latin authors of the period, Seneca mentions the Jews, although his opinions are known only from fragments. He devotes a long passage to an...
SEPPHORIS – City in Palestine which derived its name from the fact that it was perched like a bird on a high mountain. It is first mentioned by Josephus, who records ("Ant." xiii. 12, § 5) that Ptolemy Lathyrus vainly endeavored to conquer...
SEVERUS, JULIUS – Roman general; consul in 127. Later he held a number of offices in the provinces, and was legate of Dacia, Mœsia, and, according to an inscription ("C. I. L." iii., No. 2830), of Britain. This is confirmed by Dion Cassius, who...
SEVERUS, LUCIUS SEPTIMIUS – Emperor of Rome from 193 to 211 C.E. At the beginning of his reign he was obliged to war against his rival, Pescennius Niger, who had proclaimed himself Emperor of the East. Which ruler the Jews preferred is unkown, but the...
SEXTUS, JULIUS AFRICANUS – His Knowledge of Languages. Byzantine chronographer, noted for his surprisingly lucid interpretations of some Biblical questions; flourished in the first half of the third century of the common era. Suidas (s.v. Ἀφρικανός) says...