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Samuel Krauss, Ph.D.

Professor, Normal College, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
SIBYL – Number. Woman who prophesied, while in a state of frenzy, under the supposed inspiration of a deity. In the Jewish sense of persons who felt themselves spiritually impelled to speak to the people in the name of God, prophets...
SICARII – Term applied, in the decades immediately preceding the destruction of Jerusalem, to the jewish Zealots who attempted to expel the Romans and their partizans from the country, even resorting to murder to attain their object....
SILAS – 1. A Jew who made himself tyrant of Lysias, a district of the Lebanon. Pompey subjugated him, together with other petty rulers, on his march to Palestine in 63 B.C. (Josephus, "Ant." xiv. 3, § 2).2. Friend of Agrippa I., whose...
SILVA, LUCIUS FLAVIUS – Governor of Judea in 73; consul in 81. He accomplished the difficult task of taking the fortress of Masada from the Sicarii. See Procurators.Bibliography: Schürer, Gesch. 3d ed., i. 644; Prosopographia Imperii Romani, ii. 75.G....
SIMEON B. EZRON – One of the principals in the war of the Jews against the Romans in the year 66 of the common era, and a partizan of the leader of the Zealots, Eleazar b. Simeon. He was of noble descent (Josephus, "B. J." v. 1, § 2), and may be...
SIMON MACCABEUS – Hasmonean prince and high priest; died 135 B.C.; second son of Mattathias. In I Macc. ii. 3 he is called Thassi; in Josephus, "Ant." xii. 6, § 31, Thatis (with the variant Matthes). The meanings of these names are obscure. His...
SIMON MAGUS – A personage frequently mentioned in the history of primitive Christianity. According to Acts viii. 9-23, he was greatly fearedthroughout Samaria on account of his magic powers; but he permitted himself to be baptized, and wished...
SIMONIAS – A city in Galilee, about two hours southwest of Sepphoris. In the Talmud (Yer. Meg. 70a) it is identified with the Shimron of Josh. xi. 1, xii. 20, xix. 15, a name which had already been replaced in all passages of the...
SLAVES AND SLAVERY – The Hebrew word "'ebed" really means "slave"; but the English Bible renders it "servant" (a) where the word is used figuratively, pious men being "servants of the Lord" (Isa. xx. 3), and courtiers "servants of the king" (Jer....
SOSIUS, CAIUS – Roman general. Although Herod had been made king of Judea by the Romans, he was forced to wrest the country from the Hasmonean Antigonus; and as the aid which he had received from Rome was insufficient, he went to Samosata to...
SYENE – Ancient city of Egypt on the Ethiopian frontier in the Thebaid; situated on the eastern bank of the Nile, equidistant from Alexandria and Meroe. In the Bible it is called "Sweneh" ( ; Egyptian, "Sun"; Coptic, "Suan," whence it...
SYNOD OF USHA – Assembled at Usha. In the middle of the second century C.E. an important synod of rabbinical authorities was convened in the Galilean city of Usha, near Shefar'am, Tiberias, and Sepphoris. There also R. Judah B. Baba ordained...
TARSUS – Turkish town in the vilayet of Adana, 12 miles from the Mediterranean, on the River Cydnus. During the Roman period it was the capital of Cilicia. It was important on account of its commerce and its textile products, and was...
TETRARCH – A governor of a quarter of a province; the title of several feudal lords of Palestine and neighboring countries who were subject to Roman suzerainty. This title, which evidently implies a rank somewhat lower than that of...
THEBES – Ancient and famous city of Greece; capital of Bœotia. Although there is no documentary evidence of the presence of Jews at Thebes in antiquity, it may be assumed that they resided there, since their coreligionists had lived from...
THEODORE OF MOPSUESTIA – Christian bishop and Church father; born and educated at Antioch; died at Mopsuestia about 429; teacher of Nestorius and Theodoret, and the foremost exegete of the school of Antioch, which was represented also by Lucian,...
THEOPHILUS – High priest; son of Anan, and brother of Jonathan, who was deposed by Vitellius in 37 C.E. in favor of Theophilus (Josephus, "Ant." xviii. 5, § 3). He officiated for about three years, when he was succeeded by Simon Cantheras....
TITUS – Emperor of Rome from 79 to 81; born in 39 or 41; died Sept. 13, 81; son of Vespasian, the conqueror of Jerusalem. He was educated at the courts of Claudius and Nero. Titus served first in Germany and later in Britain under his...
TOBIADS – Jewish party in the Maccabean period. A combination of the statements of Josephus ("Ant." xii. 4, §§ 1-11) and of II Macc. iii. 11 yields an interesting family history, which, however, requires critical examination.During the...
TOMBS – From the earliest times the Hebrews practised burial of the dead ( , whence "ḳeber" = "tomb"), so that cremation, which was customary among the Moabites and Edomites, was regarded by the Jewish prophets as sinful and inhuman...
TRAJAN – Roman emperor from 98 to 117. Like Vespasian, Titus, and Hadrian, he is frequently mentioned by Jewish writers; and he exercised a profound influence upon the history of the Jews throughout the Babylonia, Palestine, and...
TRINITY – The fundamental dogma of Christianity; the concept of the union in one God of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as three infinite persons. It was the Nicene Council and even more especially the Athanasian Creed that first gave the...
TRYPHON – 1. Son of Theudion; one of the four envoys sent by the Jews in 45 C.E. to petition Emperor Claudius that the high-priestly vestments might remain in the possession of the Jews (Josephus, "Ant." xx. 1, §§ 1-2; see also...
TUBAL-CAIN – Brother of Jabal and Jubal, sons of Lamech, who appear to have been the originators of several industries and arts. The correctness of the Masoretic text ( ) of Gen. iv. 21-22, describing Tubal-cain, is in dispute. Holzinger and...
VESPASIAN – Emperor of Rome from 69 to 79; founder of the Flavian dynasty. The defeat of Cestius Gallus convinced Nero that the Jewish uprising was a serious matter, and he transferred the command of his army to the veteran Flavius...