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Schulim Ochser, Ph.D.

(Office Editor), Rabbi, New York City.

Contributions:
ÖTTINGEN, ELIJAH B. ABRAHAM B. MORDECAI HA-LEVI – Rabbi at Wengrow, Poland, in the first half of the seventeenth century. His first work, "Berit ha-Lewi" (Lublin, 1645), is an ethical exposition of the prayer of Moses (Deut. iii. 23-26) by 365 different methods, interwoven with...
OẒAR NEḤMAD – Hebrew annual founded and published at Vienna by Ignatz Blumenthal of Brody, Galicia, in 1836. Only four volumes appeared, in 1836, 1857, 1860, and 1863 respectively. Their contents consisted of essays in an epistolary form on...
OẒAR HA-SIFRUT – Hebrew annual devoted to Jewish literature, science, poetry, and belles-lettres; founded by Isaac Shaltiel Gräber at Yaroslav, Galicia, in 1887. For the first three years it was published regularly; but the fourth volume did not...
PADAN-ARAM – The first element in the word is variously explained as meaning "road" or "field," "yoke," and "plow." It may indicate in this connection that portion of Aram which could be cultivated—the lowland between the Euphrates and the...
PADERBORN – Town in the province of Westphalia, Prussia. The presence of Jews there is first mentioned in 1606, when the diet of Paderborn decided to prevent any increase of the Jewish inhabitants on account of the exorbitant interest...
PALMYRA – Latin name of a city in a well-watered oasis of the Syrian desert, five days' journey from the Euphrates, between three and four days from Thapsakus, and three days from Aleppo. Palmyra was situated on the highway leading from...
PALTI – Name borne by two persons mentioned in the Old Testament; probably an abbreviation, or corruption, of Paltiel. 1. Son of Raphu, of the tribe of Benjamin; one of the twelve spies (Num. xiii. 9). 2. Second husband of Michal,...
PARAN – 1. Desert, corresponding to the present Badiyyat al-Tih, bounded on the north by the Jabal al-Makhrah, on the south by the watershed toward the Sinai Peninsula, on the east by the mountains of Wadi al-'Arabah, and on the west by...
PARDO – A family deriving its name from Prado in Castile. Its members have mostly distinguished themselves in the Levant. Among them may be mentioned:David Pardo: Rabbinical commentator and liturgical poet; born at Venice March 29,...
PARSHANDATHA – The first-born son of Haman (Esth. ix. 7). In the twelfth century the name obtained a literary meaning. It was then separated into the words "parshan" (= "interpreter") and "data" (= "law"), and was used with reference to Rashi,...
PASHUR – 1. Son of Immer the priest. He attacked Jeremiah on account of his prophecies of calamity and put him in the stocks, for which Jeremiah predicted Pashur's captivity and death in Babylon (Jer. xx. 1-3).2. Son of Melchiah. He was...
PASSAU – Town of eastern Bavaria. Jews were settled here toward the end of the twelfth century, when they were under the authority of the bishop. Bishop Mangold, in 1210, to indemnify them for serious losses they had suffered through...
PATER SYNAGOGÆ – Title occurring frequently in the inscriptions of the Jewish catacombs at Rome. According to Berliner ("Gesch. der Juden in Rom," i. 69), it is the equivalent of Parnas, while Schürer ("Gesch." 3d ed., iii. 50), whom most...
PATRIARCHS, THE – Biblical Data: As early as the Biblical period Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are nearly always invoked together. God remembers the covenant which He has made with the three Patriarchs, and will therefore liberate their descendants...
PEḤAH – An office, based upon a Babylonian model, and which existed in Palestine as early as the Biblical period, being mentioned, for instance, during the reign of Solomon (c. 900 B.C.), although no details are given concerning it (I...
PEISER, RAPHAEL B. JACOB – Rabbi of Peisern in the eighteenth century. He was the author of the "Or la-Yesharim" or "En Ya'aḳob," containing novellæ on the treatises Pesaḥim, Shabbat, Beẓah, Ketubot, Rosh ha-Shanah, and Ḥullin, while he commented also...
PEISER, SIMON B. JUDAH LÖB – Rabbi in Lissa; born at Peisern, Poland, about 1690. He was the author of "Naḥalat Shim'oni," an important work of reference consisting of four sections: (1) onomasticon of the Bible, quoting all haggadot which are found in the...
PEKAHIAH – King of Israel in succession to his father (736-735 B.C.), according to P. Rost in Schrader, "K. A. T." 3d ed., i. 320 (but see Chronology), Menahem (II Kings xv. 23-26). He ascended the throne at a time when the kingdom of...
PENIEL – 1. Place mentioned three times in the Old Testament. It was situated on the western bank of the Jordan, near the ford of Jabbok, in the mountains of Ephraim. It is identified with the present Tulul al-Dhahab, which lies 250 feet...
PENIEL, SOLOMON B. ABRAHAM – Scholar of unknown date and place. He was the author of a work entitled "Or 'Enayim," on the influence of the constellations upon mankind, the days of Creation, and the wisdom of the Patriarchs (Constantinople, 1519; Cremona,...
PEOR – Mountain in the plains of Zophim, overlooking Jeshimon, where Balak took Balaam to induce him to curse Israel. According to the "Onomasticon" of Jerome, it was situated opposite Jericho, near a city named "Danaba." Although the...
PERÆA – Division of Palestine, extending, according to Josephus ("B. J." iii. 3, § 3), from Macherus in the south to Pella in the north, and from the Jordan in the west to Philadelphia (Rabbat Ammon) in the east. But in fact it covered...
PERIZZITES – Canaanitish tribe settled in the south of Palestine between Hor and Negeb, although it is not mentioned in the genealogy in Gen. x. According to the Biblical references, Abraham, when he entered Palestine, found the Perizzites...
PESAḤ PETER – German baptized Jew of the end of the fourteenth and beginning of the fifteenth century. He charged that the Jews in their concluding prayer 'Alenu made a blasphemous allusion to Jesus in the words: "for they bow before vanity...
PESEL – Usually carved in wood, or hewn in stone, and called "massekah"; the ephod belonged to it as covering, as in the case of Gideon ("pesel of Gideon") and Micah (Judges xviii. 18 [xvii. 4, 5, Hebr.]). The worship of it was...