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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Schulim Ochser, Ph.D.

(Office Editor), Rabbi, New York City.

Contributions:
PESTILENCE – The dreaded infectious disease frequent in ancient Israel and proving fatal in the majority of cases was probably the bubonic plague, which in antiquity was especially prevalent in Egypt, and also occurred in other countries of...
PETHAHIAH B. JACOB HA-LABAN – Traveler; born at Prague; flourished between 1175 and 1190. He journeyed from Ratisbon (Regensburg) to the East, traveling through Poland, southern Russia, Armenia, Persia, Babylon, and Palestine. His notes of the journey, part...
PETHOR – Native city of Balaam. In Num. xxii. 5 it is called the city "by the river," and in Deut. xxiii. 4 the city "in Aram Naharaim" (A. V. "Mesopotamia"). It was situated north-northeast of Palestine, and was most probably identical...
PHARPAR – River flowing from Hermon south of Damascus, where it turns to the southeast and flows into the Lakes of the Marj. Thomson identifies the stream with Al-A'waj; G. A. Smith and Socin (in Baedeker) with Al-Sabirani, which unites...
PHILIP – 1. Son of Herod and Cleopatra of Jerusalem; ruled from 4 B.C. to 34 C.E. When Herod changed his will in the year 4, shortly before his death, he appointed Philip tetrarch of Gaulanitis, Trachonitis, Batanæa, and Paneas. After...
PHINEHAS – 1.—Biblical Data: Son of Eleazar and grandson of Aaron (Ex. vi. 25; I Chron. v. 30, vi. 35 [A. V. vi. 4, 50]). His mother is said to have been one of Putiel's daughters; and it seems that he was the only child of his parents...
PICO DE MIRANDOLA, COUNT GIO-VANNI FREDERICO (Prince of Concordia) – Italian philosopher, theologian, and cabalist; born Feb. 24, 1463, at Mirandola; died at Florence Nov. 17, 1494. Gifted with high intellectual powers, he commenced the study of theology at an early age, graduated from the...
PIKES, ABRAHAM B. ELIJAH HA-KOHEN – German rabbi; mentioned in "Liḳḳuṭe Maharil," hilkots "Shabbat" and "Yom Kippur." He addressed two letters to the community of Halberstadt, in which he discussed the commandments and prohibitions. He requested that his epistles...
PILEGESH – Biblical Data: A concubine recognized among the ancient Hebrews. She enjoyed the same rights in the house as the legitimate wife. Since it was regarded as the highest blessing to have many children, while the greatest curse was...
PILEGESH – Biblical Data: A concubine recognized among the ancient Hebrews. She enjoyed the same rights in the house as the legitimate wife. Since it was regarded as the highest blessing to have many children, while the greatest curse was...
PIRḲE DE-RABBI ELI'EZER – Haggadicmidrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers; ascribed to R. Eliezer b. Hyrcanus, and composed in Italy shortly after 833. It is quoted immediately before the end of the twelfth century under...
POGGETTI, JACOB (JOSEPH) B. MOR-DECAI – Italian Talmudist and writer on religious ethics; born at Asti, Piedmont; flourished in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. His only known work is "Ḳiẓẓur Reshit Ḥokmah" (Venice, 1600; Cracow, 1667; Amsterdam, 1725;...
POLOTSK, PHINEHAS B. JUDAH – Polish commentator on the Bible; lived at Polotsk, Poland, in the eighteenth century. He wrote commentaries on four books of the Old Testament, as follows: "Shebeṭ mi-Yehudah" (Wilna, 1803), on Proverbs; "Derek ha-Melek"...
PORGES (PORJES), AARON B. BENJAMIN – Rabbi in Prague in the seventeenth century. Under the title "Zikron Aharon" he wrote an introduction to the "Ḳiẓẓur Ma'abar Yabboḳ," concerning the ancient Jewish customs relating to death and the dead, and containing also...
POSNER, MEÏR – Prussian rabbi; born 1735; died at Danzig Feb. 3, 1807. He was rabbi of the Schottland congregation in Danzig from 1782 till his death.Posner was the author of "Bet Meïr" (Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1787; Lemberg, 1836), a...
POSNER, SOLOMON ZALMAN – Polish rabbi: born at Landsberg about 1778 (?); died in Loslau in 1863; son of Joseph Landsberg, rabbi of Posen. At Solomon's wish his sons erected a wooden monument over his grave at Loslau.Posner was the author of several as...
PRAGUE – Regulations of Ottocar. Capital of Bohemia; the first Bohemian city in which Jews settled. Reference to them is found as early as 906, when the Jew Ibrahim ibn Jacob mentioned them as frequenting the slave-market. Pethahiah of...
PRILUK (PRZYLUK; PURLIK; FRILOCK), ARYEH LÖB – Polish author of the seventeenth century. He wrote a commentary on the Zohar from the pericope "Shemot" to "Ḥuḳḳat," which was published, with the "Sefer Yirah," in Berlin in 1724. The latter book also is credited to...
PRIMO, SAMUEL – Shabbethaian sectary of the seventeenth century; born in Jerusalem; died probably at Constantinople. He was one of the earliest followers of Shabbethai Ẓebi, whose private secretary he became. He first acted in this capacity on...
PUAH – 1. One of the two midwives who were ordered by Pharaoh to kill all the Hebrew male children (Ex. i. 15). Philo ("Quis Rerum Divinarum," ed. 1613, p. 389; ed. Schwickert, 1828, iii. 30, § 26) possibly correctly identifies this...
RAHMER, MORITZ – German rabbi; born Dec. 12, 1837, at Rybnik, Prussian Silesia; died at Magdeburg March 2, 1904. After studying at the seminary of Breslau (1854-62) he was called to Thorn (1862) as preacher and rabbi; subsequently he went to...
RA'IS – Until the time of Maḥmud II., the title of the presiding officer or head of a community in Egypt. Each Judæo-Egyptian community had its own ra'is, who was recognized by the calif and who exercised both spiritual and judicial...
RANDAR – Name originally applied to the tenants of a fee-farm, or even of an entire village, in Poland, Lithuania, and Little Russia, as well as in the Slavic portions of Austria. Subsequently the name was applied also to the tenants of...
RASCHPITZ (RASCHWITZ), Ḥayyim – Scholar of the seventeenth century; martyred, probably at Prague. He wrote the prayer "'Iyyun Tefillah," on the persecutions and the martyrdoms of Prague (2d ed., Amsterdam, 1671; 4th ed., Dessau, 1671; 5th ed., with German...
REE, ANTON – German educationist; born at Hamburg Nov. 16, 1815; died Jan. 13, 1891. He was educated at Kiel, during which time he wrote two works, "Wanderungen cines Mitgenossen auf dem Gebiete der Ethik" and "Ueber die Pflicht." In 1838 he...