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Schulim Ochser, Ph.D.

(Office Editor), Rabbi, New York City.

Contributions:
SCHUL – Judæo-German designation for the temple or the synagogue ("bet ha-midrash"), used as early as the thirteenth century. The building of synagogues being forbidden in nearly every European country at that period, the Jews were...
SCHWEINFURT – Town in Lower Franconia. The first mention of its Jews dates from the year 1243, when Henry of Bamberg ordered 50 marks in silver to be paid them. In 1263 the murder of a seven-year-old Christian girl was attributed to the Jews,...
SEGRE – Italian family of scholars.Abraham ben Judah Segre (known as Rab ASI): Rabbi in Casale in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He was on terms of intimate friendship with Judah Finzi of Mantua and with Benjamin Kohn of...
SELEUCIA – 1. Greek colony founded about the end of the third century B.C. on Lake Merom. According to the inference of Grätz, based on the scholium to Meg. Ta'an., the remnant of the Pharisees spared by Alexander Jannæus found a refuge...
SERAIAH – 1. A scribe, and one of the officials under David (II Sam. viii. 17; comp. xx. 25, where he appears under the name Sheva). In I Kings iv. 3 his sons, Elihoreph and Ahiah, occupy the position of their father (here called Shisha),...
SHABBETHAI NAWAWI – Rabbi and scholar of the end of the seventeenth century; lived in Rosetta ( ), Egypt. He was a contemporary of Abraham b. Mordecai ha-Levi, in whose "Ginnat Weradim" some of his responsa are included. Responsa by him are quoted...
SHABBETHAI B. SOLOMON – Rabbi and scholar; lived at Rome in the second half of the thirteenth century. In the controversy regarding the study of philosophy in general, and of Maimonides' "Moreh Nebukim" in particular, which arose between Hillel b....
SHAPHAN – 1. Son of Azaliah and scribe of King Josiah. He received from Hilkiah, the high priest, the book of the Law which had been found in the Temple. Shaphan was one of those sent by the king to the prophetess Huldah (II Kings xxii.;...
SHARON – Large plain of Palestine, with an average elevation of between 280 and 300 feet above sea-level; bounded by Mount Carmel on the north, Jaffa on the south, the mountains of Gilboa on the east, and the Mediterranean Sea on the...
SHEAR-JASHUB – Son of the prophet Isaiah; so named by his father as a prophecy that God would restore the Remnant of His people or that "the remnants of Jacob shall return unto the mighty God" (Isa. x. 21). Isaiah took his son with him when he...
SHEKANẒIB – Small town near Nehardea, in Persia, perhaps identical with Al-Zib on the Tigris, and possibly with ('Er. 64a, MS. reading). According to M. Ḳ. 28b, its women were noted for the beautiful songs of mourning which they sang at...
SHEMAIAH (SAMAIAS, SAMEAS) – Leader of the Pharisees in the first century B.C.; president of the Sanhedrin before and during the reign of Herod. He and his colleague Abtalion are termed in Pes. 66a the "gedole ha-dor" (the great men of the age), and ib. 70a...
SHEMAIAH B. SIMEON ẒEBI – Scholar of the seventeenth century, of whose life no other details are known than that he was the author of "Maẓref la-Ḥokmah" (Amsterdam, 1765), a list of the 613 commandments, each being described in eight words beginning with...
SHEMAIAH OF SOISSONS – Scholar of the twelfth century; a pupil of Rashi. He was the author of the following works: (1) "Sodot" or "Midrash," notes on the construction of the Tabernacle as described in Ex. xxv.-xxvi. It was edited on the basis of the...
SHEMAIAH OF TROYES – Tosafist of the early part of the twelfth century; a pupil of Rashi; probably the father-in-law of Samuel b. Meïr. He appears as a tosafist in Ber. 13a, 25b; Pes. 114a; Ket. 61a; Ḳid. 26b, and is mentioned as a casuist by Judah...
SHEPHATIAH – Name of several persons mentioned in the Old Testament. 1. Son of David and Abital; their fifth child. He was born while his father was still reigning at Hebron (II Sam. iii. 4; I Chron. iii. 3). 2. A Haruphite, and one of the...
SHESHBAZZAR – Prince of Judah, at the head of the first Jews that returned to Jerusalem after the Exile. In 539-538 B.C. Cyrus granted the exiles permission to return. At once a question must have arisen as to the legitimate successor of the...
SHILOAH – Locality mentioned in the Old Testament as "the waters of Shiloah" (Isa. viii. 6) and "the pool of Siloah" (Neh. iii. 15). Josephus writes the word Σιλωά, Σιλωᾶς, and Σιλωάμ, while the Arabic name is 'Ain Silwan. The pool was...
SHITTIM – Valley north of the Dead Sea on the left bank of the Jordan, in which the children of Israel, before their entry into the Promised Land, cohabited with the daughters of Moab and Midian. The Arabic name of the valley is Wady...
SHOḤEṬ – SHOFEṬ KOL HA-AREẒ One empowered to perform the ritual slaughter of cattle and poultry. In the Biblical writings there is no statement to the effect that any individual was specially appointed to fulfil this function; but it...
SICILY – Large island in the Mediterranean Sea, southwest of Italy, to which it belongs and from which it is separated by the Strait of Messina. The earliest trace of Jews in Sicily dates from the end of the sixth century, when, at the...
SIḤIN – Large and populous city in the territory of the tribe of Zebulon, near Sepphoris. After the destruction of Jerusalem it lost its importance, and was thenceforth called merely Kefar Siḥin. Josephus refers once ("B. J." ii. 20, §...
SILESIA – Province of Prussia, formerly of Austria. Unreliable accounts date the first settlement of Jews in Silesia as early as the eleventh century, when, it is said, a synagogue in Altendorf, near Ratibor, was transformed into a church...
SIMA (SAMA) – Babylonian amora of the latter half of the fourth and of the beginning of the fifth century; son of Rab Ashi. He is known through halakic questions which he addressed to his father (Ket. 33b, 69a; Zeb. 19b, 24a; Men. 25a; B. Ḳ....
SIMCHOWITZ, SAMUEL – Russian rabbinical writer; born in the beginning of the nineteenth century; died at Slutzk March, 1896. He possessed a thorough rabbinical knowledge, and at the same time was well versed in modern literature. Numerous essays...