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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Schulim Ochser, Ph.D.

(Office Editor), Rabbi, New York City.

Contributions:
SIMEON THE JUST – Confusion as to Identity. High priest. He is identical either with Simeon I. (310-291 or 300-270 B.C.), son of Onias I., and grandson of Jaddua, or with Simeon II. (219-199 B.C.), son of Onias II. Many statements concerning him...
SIMḤAH OF ROME – Scholar and rabbi of the Roman community in the last quarter of the thirteenth century. He was given an open letter by the community and sent out to find Maimonides' commentary on the Mishnah and bring it back with him. He...
SIMḤAT TORAH – Name given to the second day of Shemini 'Aẓeret; it falls on the 23d of Tishri and closes the Feast of Sukkot. The name was not used until a relatively late time. In the Talmud (Meg. 31a),where the hafṭarah for this feast-day is...
SISERA – General of the army of King Jabin of Hazor. According to Judges iv. 9 et seq., he invaded the northern part of Judea in the time of Deborah, the prophetess and judge. Upon Deborah's order Barak took 10,000 men and went out to...
SODOM – First city of Pentapolis, the others being Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, and Zoar, all situated in the vale of Siddim (Gen. xiv. 3), either in the present plain of Sabkhah or farther north, in the southern Seccudes between the...
SOLOMON THE EXILARCH – 1. Eldest son of the exilarch Ḥasdai; ruled from 730 to 761. In consequence of a dearth of teachers, he found it necessary to install as head of the Academy of Sura a scholar from Pumbedita, though this was contrary to...
SOLOMON BEN MOSES BEN JEKUTHIEL DE ROSSI – Writer, and composer of synagogal hymns; flourished in Rome during the thirteenth century; died after 1284 in the prime of life. He was the earliest literary member of the Rossi family. His wife was Paola Anaw, the highly gifted...
SOLOMON BEN MOSES BEN JOSEPH – Italian liturgist of the thirteenth century; identified by some with Jehiel b. Jekuthiel Anaw, and by others with Solomon b. Jedidiah; a descendant probably of Zedekiah b. Benjamin Anaw. An exhortation called "Widdui" or...
SOLOMON DE SABALDUCCHIO – Physician; flourished in Perugia, Italy, in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Pope Boniface IX., shortly after his accession, appointed Solomon his body-physician (Oct. 13, 1392). The bull which this pope issued on April...
SOSA (SOSSA, SOUSA), DE – Envoy of King John III. of Portugal to the court of Pope Paul III. (1534-50). While he was at Rome the Maranos, seeking relief from the severity of the Inquisition, urged the pope to send a papal nuncio to Portugal in their...
SOSA, MARTIN ALFONSO DE – Portuguese envoy at and governor of Goa, in the middle of the sixteenth century. In Cranganore, sixteen miles from Cochin, which at that time had a large Jewish community, he discovered several bronze tablets with ancient...
SOSA, SIMON DE – One of the wealthiest Maranos in Portugal in the middle of the seventeenth century. He was one of the conspirators, led by the Archbishop of Braga, who intended to burn the royal palaces, murder King John IV., and abduct the...
SPERLING, JACOB HIRSCH – Austrian teacher of religion at the Jewish school and the German gymnasium in Lemberg, where he was born in 1837; died Dec., 1899. He supported the Haskalah movement in Galicia and was a gifted Neo-Hebrew poet. He has been...
SPEYER – The Jewish Quarter. Bishopric of Rhenish Bavaria. The first mention of a Jewish community in Speyer occurs during the episcopate of Bishop Rüdiger, who officiated from 1073 to 1090. He admitted several Jewish refugees, and...
SPIRA (SPIRO) – Family of scholars and rabbis of Speyer, Rhenish Bavaria, with numerous branches in other parts of Germany, and in Bohemia, Galicia, and Poland. It originally bore the name "Ashkenazi," to distinguish it from the Kahane or...
SPIRA (SPIRO) – Family of scholars and rabbis of Speyer, Rhenish Bavaria, with numerous branches in other parts of Germany, and in Bohemia, Galicia, and Poland. It originally bore the name "Ashkenazi," to distinguish it from the Kahane or...
SPIRA (SPIRO) – Family of scholars and rabbis of Speyer, Rhenish Bavaria, with numerous branches in other parts of Germany, and in Bohemia, Galicia, and Poland. It originally bore the name "Ashkenazi," to distinguish it from the Kahane or...
SPITZ, ABRAHAM (NAPHTALI HIRSCH) BEN MOSES HA-LEVI – Moravian rabbi; born about 1628; died at Worms in 1712. In 1663 he was appointed rabbi of a Moravian congregation, and in 1692 dayyan at Nikolsburg, where he officiated for twelve years. In 1704 he was called to Worms, where he...
SPITZ, ISAAC (EIZIG) – Ab det din in Bunzlau, Bohemia; born 1764; died in Bunzlau May 6, 1842. He wrote "Mat'amme Yiẓḥaḳ," songs, melodies, and sayings, which was published by his son Yom-Ṭob in Prague in 1843.Bibliography: Busch, Jahrbuch, i. 176;...
SPITZ, MEÏR B. JOHANAN – Rabbi of Oronie, Hungary, in the eighteenth century. He wrote "Katit la-Ma'or," halakic novellæ to some Talmudic treatises; and "Shemen ha-Ma'or," novellæ on ritualistic matters. Both these works appeared in Vienna in...
SPITZ, YOM-ṬOB BEN ISAAC – Teacher of Hebrew and German in the Jewish school of Prague during the first half of the nineteenth century. He was the author of "Alon Bakut" (Prague, 1826), on the death of his grandfather R. Eleazar Fleckeles of Prague;...
SPITZ, ẒEBI HIRSCH – German author and Talmudist of the eighteenth century. He wrote "Dibre Ḥakamim we-Ḥidotam" (Offenbach, 1802), a commentary on those passages of the Talmud in which it is said "the Torah speaks in the language of man" or "the...
STEINHARDT, JOSEPH B. MENAHEM MENDEL – German rabbi; born about 1720; died at Fürth in 1776; lived in early manhood at Schwabach in Bavaria. His first incumbency was the rabbinate of Rixheim, and shortly afterward he was elected chief rabbi of Upper Alsace. ln 1755...
STEINHARDT, MENDEL – German rabbi and scholar of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; held the rabbinate of Minden. When the consistory of Westphalia was convened in 1807 he was elected its counselor. In defense of Israel Jacobson's advocacy of...
STETTIN – District of Pomerania, with its capital of the same name. On Dec. 2, 1261, Duke Barnim I. of Pomerania ordered that the Jews of Stettin, and those of other parts of his duchy, should enjoy rights similar to those accorded the...