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Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL.D.

Professor of Hebrew, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

Contributions:
ABRAHAM – Birth and Wanderings. —Biblical Data: According to the Bible, Abraham (or Abram) was the father of the Hebrews. The Biblical account of the life of Abram is found in Gen. xi. 26 to xxv. 10. According to this narrative, he was...
ALIENS – There are several designations for Aliens in the Old Testament. Of these, and mean specifically "foreign," a person outside the circle of the nation (Isa. i. 7; Judges, xix. 12) or of the class or family (Deut. xxv. 5, husband's...
ANAKIM – Biblical Data: A pre-Canaanite tribe, dwelling (according to Josh. xi. 21, 22, and Judges i. 10, 20) in the hill country of Judah and in the Philistine plain (Hebron, Debir, Anab, Gaza, Gath, Ashdod). Three clans are mentioned:...
APOCRYPHA – I. The most general definition of Apocrypha is, Writings having some pretension to the character of sacred scripture, or received as such by certain sects, but excluded from the canon (see Canon).The history of the earlier usage...
APOLLINARIS – Bishop of Hierapolis, Phrygia, in 170; author of an "Apology for the Christian Faith," which he addressed to Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. He wrote also two books "Pros Ioudaious" (Against the Jews) and other works against...
APOLLOS – A learned Jew of Alexandria, and colaborer of Paul. Of him the following is told (Acts xviii. 24-28): He came (about 56) to Ephesus, as "an eloquent man and mighty in the Scriptures," to preach and to teach in the synagogue; and...
AQUILA (Ακύλας, V02p034001.jpg) – Translator of the canonical Scriptures from Hebrew into Greek. He was by birth a Gentile from Pontus, and is said by Epiphanius to have been a connection by marriage of the emperor Hadrian and to have been appointed by him about...
AQUINAS, THOMAS – Most eminent of the Christian theological philosophers of the Middle Ages; born 1227 at Aquino, kingdom of Naples; died 1274. Like his teacher Albertus Magnus, Thomas made philosophy his favorite study, and sought to harmonize...
ARCHITE – Inhabitant of a town or district on the southern border of Judah probably connected with the Erech (A. V. Archi) of Josh. xvi. 2. Hushai, David's friend, was from that region (II Sam. xv. 32). It would appear to be somewhere in...
ARIEL – Biblical Data: 1. Proper name of a man (Ezra viii. 16). The name is recognizable in the name of the Gadite clan Areli (Gen. xlvi. 16; Num. xxvi. 17, Ariel in LXX.), and occurs also in II Sam. xxiii. 20, R. V., and in I Chron....
ARISTO OF PELLA – A Christian controversialist who wrote against Judaism in the second century (135-170). He is the author of a "Dialogue Between Jason and Papiscus." The former is supposed to be a Jewish Christian, the latter an Alexandrian Jew....
ARTAPANUS – Historian; lived in Alexandria in the second century B.C. He wrote a history of the Jews, parts of which have been preserved in the writings of the church-fathers Eusebius ("Præparatio Evangelica," ix. 18, 23) and Clement of...
ASHER BEN LEVI – Legendary boy convert and, subsequently,Christian martyr; lived toward the end of the fourth century in Sinjar, between Nisibis and Mosul in Mesopotamia. He was born of Jewish parents. As a boy he lived all alone and was shunned...
ASHES – Use. —Biblical Data: The usual translation of the Hebrew "efer" which occurs often in expressions of mourning and in other connectionsIt is a symbol of insignificance or nothingness in persons or words (Gen. xviii. 27; Isa....
ASTRUC, JEAN – Physician and founder of modern Pentateuch criticism; born at Sauve, France, March 19, 1684; died in Paris May 5, 1766. His father was a Huguenot, but became a Catholic. He studied medicine and became professor of anatomy in...
ASYLUM – Origin and Character. —Biblical Data (ἰσυλον, "inviolable"): A place of refuge for slaves, debtors, political offenders, and criminals; a sacred spot, a sanctuary, altar, or grave, protected by the presence of a deity or other...
AVIANUS, HIERONYMUS – Christian Oriental scholar; lived at Leipsic at the end of the sixteenth and at the beginning of the seventeenth century. He devoted himself to Hebrew versification, and published a work in two volumes, entitled, "Clavis Poeseos...
AVITUS OF AUVERGNE – Bishop of Clermont-Ferrand, France, in the sixth century. While the Roman bishops at that time generally treated the Jews with great liberality, while Pope Gregory I. exhorted the clergy and the princes against the use of force...
AZRIEL BEN MOSES MESHEL, OF WILNA – Grammarian; lived at the end of the seventeenth and at the beginning of the eighteenth century. About 1700 he left his native town, Wilna, and settled with his family at Frankfort-on-the-Main. There he published, in 1704, in...
BAHAMONTE, BENITO LOPEZ – Spanish Christian; author of a Hebrew grammar for school use, entitled, "Gramatica de la Lengua Hebraica, Escrita en Castellano," Madrid, 1818 (Kayserling, "Bibliotheca Española," p. 16).T. M. K.
BAR JESUS – A Jewish magician described in Acts xiii. 6-11 as a "sorcerer, a false prophet," who, when Paul and Barnabas came to Cyprus, was found in the company of Sergius Paulus, the Roman proconsul. He also bore the title of "Elymas" (=...
BARDACH, ISRAEL ISAAC BEN ḤAYYIM MOSES – Grammarian; lived in Lithuania at the end of the eighteenth century. He was the author of "Ṭa'ame Torah" (The Accents of the Law), which forms the second part of a treatise of his on grammar. This work was published at Wilna in...
BARGÈS, JEAN JOSEPH LEANDRE – Honorary canon of Notre Dame of Paris, abbé and Orientalist; born in 1810 at Auriol (Bouches-du-Rhône); died in 1896 near Marseilles. From 1835 he was a member of the Asiatic Society of Paris. After delivering lectures on Arabic...
BARNABAS, JOSES – The "Apostle." One of the Apostles, of the tribe of Levi and of the country of Cyprus. In Acts iv. 36 his name is given as "Bar Naḥamah" (son of consolation), of which "Barnabas" is the Grecized form. Some explain the name as...
BARTHOLOMEW – One of the apostles; mentioned only in Matt. x. 3; Mark iii. 18; Luke vi. 14; Acts i. 13. Some writers identify him with the Nathanael of John i. 45 et seq., xxi. 2, but on insufficient grounds. He is mentioned by Eusebius...