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Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL.D.

Professor of Hebrew, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

Contributions:
BARUCH, APOCALYPSE OF (Greek) – An apocryphal work, in which Baruch, the disciple of Jeremiah, gives an account of the revelation which he received in heaven. The existence of this work (which is wholly different from the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch published...
BARUCH, APOCALYPSE OF (Syriac) – A pseudepigraphic work in which Baruch narrates his experiences during the periods just before and after the destruction of the Temple, and gives an account of the revelations received by him concerning the future. With the...
BARUCH, BOOK OF – Contents. One of the Apocryphal or so-called deuterocanonic books of the Old Testament. It consists of two parts. The first (i. 1-iii. 8) is in the form of a prose letter with a historical introduction. Baruch, the secretary of...
BASNAGE, JACOB CHRISTIAN – Protestant pastor; born at Rouen, France, Aug. 8, 1653; died in Holland Dec. 22, 1725. At the age of twenty-three he took charge of the Protestant Church of Rouen, succeeding Etienne Le Moine, who had been called to Leyden as...
BATE, JULIUS – English Biblical and Hebraic scholar; born about 1711; died at Arundel Jan. 20, 1771. He was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, where he received his master's degree in 1740. He took unusual interest in Old Testament...
BAUER, GEORGE LORENZ – Christian author of a theology of the Old Testament; born at Hippolstein, Bavaria, Aug. 14, 1755; died Jan. 13, 1806. In 1789 he was appointed professor of philosophy and Oriental languages at the University of Altdorf, and in...
BAYNUS (BAYNE), RUDOLPHUS – A Christian Hebraist of Cambridge; professor of the Hebrew language in Paris about the middle of the sixteenth century. He was the author of the work "Compendium Michlol" (also with the Hebrew title, "Ḳiẓẓur ha-Ḥeleḳ Rishon...
BEELEN, THEODORE JOHANN – Professor of Oriental languages at the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium; born at Amsterdam at the beginning of the nineteenth century. He devoted himself early to the study of Hebrew literature, especially rabbinical, and...
BEL AND THE DRAGON – An Apocryphal tract, placed, in the Septuagint and Theodotion, among the additions to the Book of Daniel (see Apocrypha). It consists of two separate stories: one relating to Bel; the other, to the Dragon. In the former, Daniel,...
BELLERMANN, JOHANN JOACHIM – Christian Hebraist and professor of theology at Berlin University; born at Erfurt Sept. 23, 1754; died at Berlin Oct. 25, 1842.On graduating from the University of Göttingen Bellermann accepted a position as teacher at Reval,...
BEN SIRA, ALPHABET OF – A small book containing a double list of proverbs—twenty-two Aramaic and twenty-two Hebrew—alphabetically arranged, and a haggadic commentary on them, enriched with fables and legends. Corresponding to their linguistic...
BERGÈR, PHILIPPE – Christian professor of Hebrew; member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres; born at Beaucourt, Haut-Rhin, September, 1846; brother of Samuel Bergér. Graduating at the University of Strasburg, he settled in Paris,...
BERGÈR, SAMUEL – French professor of Protestant theology; secretary and librarian of the Faculté de Théologie Protestante, Paris; born at Beaucourt, Haut-Rhin, May 2, 1843; brother of Philippe Bergèr. He attended the lectures on literature at...
BERRUYER, JOSEPH ISAAC – French Jesuit; born at Rouen Nov. 7, 1681; died at Paris Feb. 1758. He was the author of a work entitled "Histoire du Peuple de Dieu," Paris, 1728, a history of the Jews from the earliest times to the birth of Jesus, according...
BERTHEAU, ERNEST – Biblical and Oriental scholar; born Nov. 23, 1812, in Hamburg; died May 17, 1888, in Göttingen. In 1843 he was appointed ordinary professor in the University of Göttingen, where he lectured on Oriental languages, Biblical...
BERTRAM, CORNEILLE BONAVENTURE – Protestant clergyman and Hebraist; born at Thouars, France, in 1531; died at Lausanne, Switzerland, 1594. He studied at Poitiers, Paris, Toulouse, and Cahors. Learning, in the last-mentioned city, that the authorities had...
BET – The second letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Its numerical value is two, wherefore the bet in the word (Gen. xxi. 12) is interpreted as an allusion to the two worlds Isaac is destined to inherit—this world and the world to come...
BIBLE EDITIONS – The advantages of the newly discovered art of printing were quickly recognized by the Jews. While for the synagogue service written scrolls only were (and are still) used, the printing-press was very soon called into service to...
BIBLE TRANSLATIONS – The Targums. Jewish translations of the Old Testament were made from time to time by Jews, in order to satisfy the needs, both in public service and in private life, of those that had gradually lost the knowledge of the ancient...
BICKELL, GUSTAV WILHELM HUGO – Christian Hebraist and professor in the University of Vienna; born July 7, 1838, at Cassel. After graduating at Marburg, where he studied Semitic languages, he renounced Protestantism and entered the Roman Catholic Church,...
BIESENTHAL, JOACHIM HEINRICH – Theologian and author; born at Lobsens, Posen, 1800; died in Berlin, 1886. He was destined for the rabbinate; but while attending the University of Berlin (1827-35) he made the acquaintance of the Oriental scholar Wilhelm Vatke,...
BLAYNEY, BENJAMIN – English divine and Hebraist; born 1728; died Sept. 20, 1801. He was educated at Oxford, took the master's degree in 1735, and became fellow and vice-principal of Hertford College in 1768. He was employed by the Clarendon Press...
BLEEK, FRIEDRICH – Christian theologian; born July 4, 1793, at Ahrensböck, Holstein; died at Bonn in 1859. After a preparatory course at the gymnasium of Lübeck and two years of philosophical study at Kiel, he entered the University of Berlin,...
BOCHART, SAMUEL – One of the greatest scholars of the seventeenth century, and an illustrious representative of the science and theology of the French Reformed Church; born at Rouen in 1599; died in Caen, May 16, 1667. His parents were persons of...
BODENSCHATZ, JOHANN CHRISTIAN GEORG – German Protestant theologian; born at Hof, Germany, May 25, 1717; died Oct. 4, 1797, at Baiersdorf near Erlangen. In his early education at the gymnasium of Gera he became interested in Oriental and Biblical subjects through his...