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Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL.D.

Professor of Hebrew, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

Contributions:
CYRIL – Apostle of the Slavonians and author of the Slavonic alphabet (Cyrillitza), which is probably a modification of an older Slavonic alphabet (Glagola); born at Salonica about 820; died in Rome Feb. 14 869. His baptismal name was...
DAVIDSON, ANDREW B. – Professor of Hebrew and Oriental languages in New College, Edinburgh; born at Kirkhill, in the parish of Ellon, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, in 1831; died in EdinburghJan. 26, 1902. He was educated at the University of Aberdeen,...
DELITZSCH, FRANZ – Christian Hebraist; born at Leipsic Feb. 23, 1813; died there March 4, 1890. He was not of Jewish descent; although, owing to his rabbinical learning and his sympathy with the Jewish people, and from a misunderstanding of his...
DELITZSCH, FRANZ – Christian Hebraist; born at Leipsic Feb. 23, 1813; died there March 4, 1890. He was not of Jewish descent; although, owing to his rabbinical learning and his sympathy with the Jewish people, and from a misunderstanding of his...
DUNASH BEN LABRAṬ – Philologist and poet of the tenth century. For the name "Dunash," which Joseph Ḳimḥi on one occasion ("Sefer ha-Galui," p.62), for the sake of the rime, writes ("Dunosh"), see Dunash Ibn Tamim. "Labraṭ" ( , generally written...
ELIEZER OF BEAUGENCY – French exegete of the twelfth century; born at Beaugency, capital of a canton in the department of Loiret; pupil of Samuel ben Meïr, the eminent grandson of Rashi. Eliezer was one of the most distinguished representatives of his...
ERNESTI, JOHANN AUGUST – Protestant theologian; classical scholar; born Aug. 4, 1707, at Tennstädt, Thuringia; died 1781 at Leipsic, in the university of which city he was professor of classical literature, rhetoric, and theology. Ernesti did good...
ERTER, ISAAC – Satirist; born 1792 at Janischok, Galicia; died 1851 at Brody. The first part of his life was full of struggles and hardships. After having associated for many years with the Ḥasidim, he settled at Lemberg; and through the...
EWALD, GEORG HEINRICH AUGUST – Christian Biblical scholar; born at Göttingen Nov. 16, 1803; died there May 4, 1875; educated at the University of Göttingen, where he studied philology and especially Oriental languages. He became private tutor in 1824 and...
GIKATILLA, MOSES IBN – Grammarian and Bible exegete of the latter part of the eleventh century. His full name was "Moses b. Samuel haKohen," but Abraham ibn Ezra generally called him "Rabbi Moses ha-Kohen." His surname, which appears as early as the...
HAHN, AUGUST – German theologian and Orientalist; born at Grossosterhausen, Saxony, March 27, 1792; died in Silesia May 13, 1863. He studied theology and Oriental languages at Leipsic, devoting special attention to Syriac. His treatise on...
HARFIDIL – Name of a Gothic Jew occurring in a Hebrew epitaph found near Parthenit. Chwolson places the inscription in the fifth century; and the change from the Wulfianic name "Harjafrithila" ("th" as in Eng. "this") to "Harfidil"...
ḤAYYUJ, JUDAH B. DAVID (Abu Zakariyya Yaḥya ibn Daud) – Father of Scientific Hebrew Grammar. Spanish-Hebrew grammarian; born in Fez, Morocco, about 950. At an early age he went to Cordova, where he seems to have remained till his death, which occurred early in the eleventh century....
HE – AZZANUT ḤAZZANUT Fifth letter of the Hebrew alphabet; on its form see Alphabet. It is a guttural, pronounced as the English "h," standing midway between א and ת, and sometimes interchanged with these two. At the end of a word it...
HEBREW LANGUAGE – Name. The designation "Hebrew language" for the language in which are written the Old Testament (with the exception of Ezra iv. 8-vi. 18; Dan. ii. 4 [after the fourth word]-vii. 38; Jer. x. 11; and a proper name in Gen. xxxi....
ḤET – Eighth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. The name, perhaps, means "hedge," "fence"; on the form, which is Aramaic, see Alphabet. "Ḥet" is a guttural, commonly pronounced nearly as the German "ch" before "a" or "o." Originally—as...
HOTTINGER, JOHANN HEINRICH – Swiss Christian Hebraist; born at Zurich March 10, 1620; drowned in the Limmat, in Switzerland, June 5, 1667. Having studied Oriental languages and theology at Geneva, Groningen, and Leyden, Hottinger was in 1642 appointed...
HUPFELD, HERMANN – German Christian Biblical scholar; born at Marburg March 31, 1796; died at Halle April 24, 1866. He was professor of Old Testament exegesis at Marburg from 1825 to 1843, when he succeeded Gesenius at Halle (1843-1866). In his...
IBN – Arabic word (in Hebrew ) meaning "son," and having the shortened form "ben" or "bin" ( ) when standing between the proper name of the father and that of the son, provided both names form part either of the subject or of the...
IBN BARUN, ABU IBRAHIM ISḤAḲ – Spanish grammarian; lived in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, probably at Barcelona. He was a pupil of the grammarian Levi ibn Tabban of Saragossa (author of the "Mafteaḥ"), and a contemporary of Judah ha-Levi and Moses ibn...
IBN JANAḤ, ABU AL-WALID MERWAN – Greatest Hebrew philologist of the Middle Ages; born at Cordova between 985 and 990; died at Saragossa in the first half of the eleventh century. He studied at Lucena, Isaac ibn Saul and Isaac ibn Gikatilla being his principal...
IḲRIṬI (V06p559001.jpg), SHEMARIAH B. ELIJAH OF NEGROPONT – Italian philosopher and Biblical exegete; contemporary of Dante and Immanuel; born probably at Rome about 1275, the descendant of a long line of Roman Jews. His father, in his youth, went as rabbi to Crete, whence his surname,...
ISAAC, JOHANN LEVITA – German professor of Hebrew; born 1515; died at Cologne 1577. At first a rabbi at Wetzlar, he was baptized as a Protestant in 1546, but embraced the Roman Catholic faith when called to Cologne as professor of Hebrew, in which...
ISAIAH, ASCENSION OF – Name. Apocryphal book, consisting of three different parts, which seem originally to have existed separately; one is of Jewish, two are of Christian, origin. The common name of the book, "Ascension of Isaiah," properly covers...
JACOB B. ELEAZAR – Spanish grammarian of the first third of the thirteenth century. The assumption that he lived in the first third of the twelfth century (Geiger's "Jüd. Zeit." xi. 235; Grätz, "Gesch." 3d ed., vi. 110; Winter and Wünsche,...