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Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL.D.

Professor of Hebrew, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

Contributions:
MALCHUS (CLEODEMUS THE PROPHET) – Hellenistic writer of the second century B.C. His Semitic name, "Malchus," a very common one in Phenicia and Syria but not met with among the Jews, combined with the pagan traditions abounding in his work, has given rise to...
MANASSEH, PRAYER OF – Greek poetic composition attributed to Manasseh, son of Hezekiah, King of Judah, "when he was holden captive in Babylon" (II Chron. xxxiii. 11-13, 18-19). It is found among the Canticles which, in some of the Septuagint...
MANETHO – Greco-Egyptian writer whose history of Egypt, forming a source of Josephus, especially in his book "Contra Apionem" (i. 14 et seq.; ed. Niese, §§ 73-105; 228-251), possesses special interest for the history of Israel.Manetho was...
MANETTI, GIANNOZZO – Italian statesman and Christian Hebraist; born in Florence 1396; died at Naples Oct. 26, 1459. At the suggestion of Pope Nicholas V., who had made him one of his secretaries, Manetti learned Hebrew from a Jew named Manuel. He is...
MARTINET, ADAM – German Catholic Orientalist; born in Höchstädt, near Bamberg, in Jan., 1800; date of death uncertain. Martinet, who was a professor in the lyceum of Bamberg, was the author of "Tif'eret Yisrael," or "Hebräische Chrestomathie der...
MASORAH – The system of critical notes on the external form of the Biblical text. This system of notes represents the literary labors of innumerable scholars, of which the beginning falls probably in pre-Maccabean times and the end...
MAUSCHBERGER, LEOPOLD – Biblical scholar of the eighteenth century. He was the author of commentaries on the Pentateuch and the Earlier Prophets (Olmütz, 1757), and on the books of Chronicles, Ezra, Tobit, Judith, etc. (ib. 1758; Fürst, "Bibl. Jud.")....
MEÏR B. DAVID – Grammarian of the last third of the thirteenth century. He wrote, under the title "Hassagat ha-Hassagah," a criticism of Ibn Janaḥ's "Kitab al-Mustalḥaḳ." Meïr's work is known, however, only through passages quoted by Profiat...
MEÏR B. SOLOMON B. DAVID – Grammarian of the end of the thirteenth century. He wrote a short but interesting grammatical work, which is extant only in a manuscript formerly in the possession of Halberstam, but now in the Montefiore Library (No. 410, 3;...
MEM – Thirteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet; the meaning of the name is "water," the primitive shape of the letter resembling waves (see Alphabet). "Mem" has two forms: one for the beginning or middle of a word (מ), and one for the...
MENAHEM BEN SARUḲ (MENAHEM B. JACOB IBN SARUḲ) – Spanish philologist of the tenth century. He was a native of Tortosa, and went, apparently at an early age, to Cordova, where he found a patron in Isaac, the father of the subsequent statesman Ḥasdai ibn Shaprut. At Isaac's...
MICHAELIS, JOHANN DAVID – Christian Orientalist and polyhistor; born at Halle Feb. 27, 1717; died at Göttingen Aug. 22, 1791; grandnephew of Johann Heinrich Michaelis. He was educated at the university of his native city, and made scientific journeys in...
MICHAELIS, JOHANN HEINRICH – German Christian theologian and Hebraist; born at Kletterberg July 26, 1668; died at Halle March 10, 1738. He studied Ethiopic under Ludolf at Frankfort-on-the-Main, and became assistant professor of Oriental languages at Halle...
MINDEN, JUDAH (LöB) B. JOEL – German lexicographer; lived at Berlin in the sixth decade of the eighteenth century. In 1760 he published there, with the approbation of the rabbinates of Berlin and Halberstadt, the first Hebrew dictionary produced by a Jew and...
MNEMONICS – Certain sentences, words, or letters used to assist the memory. Such aids are employed in the Mishnah, in both Talmuds, and in the Masorah, as well as by the Geonim and by the teachers of the Law during the Middle Ages. In this...
MONIS, JUDAH – American scholar. Hannah Adams in her "History of the Jews" says that he was born in Algiers about 1683, and that he died in Northborough, Mass., in 1764; while Josiah Quincy in his "History of Harvard University" gives the year...
MOROSINI, GIULIO (SAMUEL BEN NAḤMIAS B. DAVID B. ISAAC B. DAVID BA'AL TESHUBAH) – Italian convert from Judaism to Christianity; born at Venice 1612; died in 1687. He was descended from a wealthy family which traced its ancestry back to Nehemiah. His great-grandfather left Spain on the expulsion of the Jews by...
MOSES – Biblical Data: The birth of Moses occurred at a time when Pharaoh had commanded that all male children born to Hebrew captives should be thrown into the Nile (Ex. ii.; comp. i.). Jochebed, the wife of the Levite Amram, bore a...
MOSES BEN ISAAC HANESSIAH – English grammarian and lexicographer of the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries. His mother probably was a Jewess named Comitissa, of Cambridge, whence the name "Hanessiah." In his youth he wrote a work (now lost) on...
MOSES BEN YOM-ṬOB – English Masorite and grammarian. He is quoted by Moses ben Isaac as his teacher ("Sefer ha-Shoham," ed. Collins, p. 37), and is referred to in the Berlin manuscripts of his work as "Moses ben Yom-Ṭob of London." He wrote "Darke...
MÜNSTER, SEBASTIAN – German Hebraist and cosmographer; born 1489 at Ingelheim; died at Basel May 23, 1552. He was educated at Heidelberg and Tübingen, and became a Protestant and teacher of Hebrew at the University of Basel in 1529. Münster studied...
NAḲDANIM – Punctuators or Masoretic annotators; the successors of the Masorites proper. Their activity consisted in collecting and conserving Masoretic material, revising the consonantal text produced by professional scribes, and...
NEANDER, JOHANN AUGUST WILHELM – German Church historian; born at Göttingen Jan. 17, 1789; died at Berlin July 14, 1850. Prior to his baptism his name was "David Mendel," and on his mother's side he was related to Moses Mendelssohn. He attended the gymnasium at...
NEUWIEDEL, ELIAS – Russian grammarian; born at Neustadt-Sugind (Alexandrowo) 1821; died at Warsaw Sept. 16, 1886. He studied Talmud at the yeshibah of Volozhin, and was teacher of Hebrew and modern languages at Rossieny, government of Kovno, and...
NÖLDEKE, THEODOR – German Orientalist; born March 2, 1836, at Harburg. He studied Oriental languages at Göttingen, Vienna, Leyden, and Berlin; became assistant professor of Semitic languages at Göttingen in 1864; was appointed to a professorship...