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Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL.D.

Professor of Hebrew, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

Contributions:
RELAND, ADRIAN – Dutch Christian Hebraist and Orientalist; born at Ryp, near Alkmaar, Holland, July 17, 1676; died at Utrecht Feb. 5, 1718. He became professor at Harderwyk in 1699, but resigned his appointment in the same year for the chair of...
RENAN, JOSEPH ERNEST – French Semitic scholar and thinker; born at Tréguier Feb. 23, 1823; died at Paris Oct. 2, 1892. Destined for the priesthood, he felt in 1842, after the study of German philosophy and Semitic philology, that he was no longer able...
RESH – Twentieth letter of the Hebrew alphabet, perhaps so called because the shape of the letter in the Phenician alphabet (see Alphabet) resembles the form of a head (Hebr. "rosh"; Aramaic, "resh"). In pronunciation it is a palatal...
REUSS, EDUARD WILHELM – Protestant theologian; born in Strasburg July 18, 1804; died there April 15, 1891. He studied Oriental languages with Gesenius at Halle, and with Silvestre de Sacy at Paris; and became professor at his native city in 1834. He...
REVELATION (BOOK OF) – Jewish Origin. The last book in the New Testament canon, yet in fact one of the oldest; probably the only Judæo-Christian work which has survived the Paulinian transformation of the Church. The introductory verse betrays the...
RIME – The early Hebrews have been credited with the knowledge and use of rime. Judah Provencal, according to Azariah dei Rossi ("Me'or 'Enayim," v.), considered Hebrew poetry the mother of all other poetries, so that in adopting the...
RITTANGEL, JOHANN STEPHANUS – German controversial writer; born at Forscheim, near Bamberg; died at Königsberg 1652. It is stated that he was born a Jew, became converted to Roman Catholicism, then became a Calvinist, and lastly joined the Lutheran Church....
ROEDELSHEIM, ELEAZAR SUSSMANN B. ISAAC – Dutch scholar, probably of German descent; lived in the first half of the eighteenth century. He was the author of the following works: "Mohar Yisrael," comprising a Hebrew grammar and a Dutch-Hebrew and Hebrew-Dutch dictionary,...
ROOT – The fundamental or elementary part of a word. So far as is known no Hebrew equivalent of the term "root" was used with a philological application by the teachers of the Talmud. It is true that they disputed about the radical...
ROSENMÜLLER, ERNST FRIEDRICH KARL – Christian Orientalist and theologian; born Dec. 10, 1768, at. Hesselberg; died at Leipsic Sept. 17, 1835. He studied at Erlangen, Giessen, and Leipsic under his father, and became assistant professor of Arabic at the university...
ROSSI, GIOVANNI BERNARDO DE – Italian Christian Hebraist; born Oct. 25, 1742, in Castelnuovo; died in Parma March, 1831. He studied in Ivrea and Turin. In Oct., 1769, he was appointed professor of Oriental languages at the University of Parma, where he spent...
RYSSEL, CARL VICTOR – German Protestant theologian; born at Reinsberg, Saxony, Dec. 18, 1849; died at Zurich. March 2, 1905. Having completed his theological and Oriental studies, he commenced his academic career at the Leipsic University in 1878 and...
SABA – A word derived from the root , "to be white, old"; used in the Talmud with various meanings:(a) It designates an old man or old woman in general, as in the saying "an old man ["saba"] in the house means ruin, but an old woman...
SAMEK – The fifteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Its name may be connected with "samek" ="prop," "support." On the original shape of the letter see Alphabet. "Samek" belongs to the group of sibilants, with other members of which it...
SAMUEL HA-NAḲDAN – Masorite and grammarian of the twelfth century. A grammatical work of his entitled "Deyaḳut" is extant in the Royal Library at Berlin. It deals with various grammatical points and with the accents. According to Steinschneider,...
SAULCY, LOUIS FÉLICIEN JOSEPH CAIGNART DE – Christian archeologist and numismatist; born at Lille March 19, 1807; died in Paris Nov. 5, 1880. He first adopted a military career, and in this way became custos of the Museum of Artillery, Paris, in 1842. He then made a...
SEMITIC LANGUAGES – Languages spoken by the Semitic peoples (comp. Semites). These peoples are the North-Arabians, the South-Arabians, the Abyssinians (ancient and modern), the ancient Babylonians and Assyrians, the various Aramean tribes, the...
SHABBETHAI BEN ISAAC – Talmudist and grammarian; born at Lublin, Poland; lived at Przemysl in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; teacher of the Talmudist and cabalist Ḥayyim Bochner. Shabbethai was the author of: "Teshubah," a responsum on the...
SHABBETHAI B. MEÏR HA-KOHEN (SHaK) – Russian Talmudist; born at Wilna 1621; died at Holleschau on the 1st of Adar (Rishon), 1662. In 1633 he entered the yeshibah of R. Joshua at Tyktizin, studying later at Cracow and Lublin. Returning to Wilna, he married the...
SHIN – Twenty-first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Its name appears to be connected with "shen" = "tooth" (see Alphabet). The sign ש represents two sounds: (1) a dental surd sibilant (indicated by a point on the left horn, ש, and...
SIEGFRIED, KARL – German Protestant theologian; born at Magdeburg Jan. 22, 1830; died at Jena Jan. 9, 1903. In 1875 he became professor of theology at the University of Jena, and in 1892 received the title of "Geheimer-Kirchenrat."Of Siegfried's...
SIMON, RICHARD – French scholar and Orientalist; born at Dieppe May 13, 1638; died there April 21, 1721. After studying at the Sorbonne he joined the Congregation of the Oratory, in the library of which he studied Oriental works and manuscripts....
SIRACH, THE WISDOM OF JESUS THE SON OF – Names. Among the books of the Greek Bible is one entitled Σοφία Ἰησοῦ ϒἱοῦ Σιράχ (Codices Sinaiticus and Alexandrinus) or simply Σοφία Σειρáχ (Codex Vaticanus). The Greek Church Fathers called it also "The All-Virtuous Wisdom"...
SMALL AND LARGE LETTERS – There are about 100 abnormal letters in the Masoretic text of the Bible—many of them in the Pentateuch—which were always copied by the scribes, and appear also in the printed editions. Among these letters are: the "waw ḳeṭi'a"...
SOLOMON – Third king of all Israel; reigned from about 971 to 931 B.C ; second son of David and Bath-sheba (II Sam. xii. 23-25). He was called Jedidiah (= "beloved of Yhwh") by Nathan the prophet, the Chronicler (I Chron. xxii. 9)...