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Wilhelm Bacher, Ph.D.

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
ABAYE – Babylonian amora; born about the close of the third century; died 339 (see Academies in Babylonia). His father, Kaylil, was the brother of Rabbah bar Naḥmani, a teacher at the Academy of Pumbedita. Abaye's real name was Naḥmani,...
ABBA – As a Prænomen: A word signifying "father," used as a masculine name as early as the time of the Tannaites (see Peah, ii. 6; Yeb. 15a; see following article). The name was particularly common among the Amoraim of Palestine and...
ABBA – 1. A brother of Rabban Gamaliel, probably Gamaliel II.; perhaps identical with Abba, a contemporary of Johanan ben Zakkai, mentioned in Peah, ii. 6. Besides Gamaliel's daughter, Abba had at the same time another wife; and when...
ABBA BAR ABBA – A Babylonian amora of the second and third centuries, distinguished for piety, benevolence, and learning. He is known chiefly through his son Mar Samuel, principal of the Academy of Nehardea, and is nearly always referred to as...
ABBA B. ABINA – An amora who flourished in the third century. He was a native of Babylonia and a pupil of Rab. He emigrated to Palestine, where he became well known in tradition, particularly through his various haggadic sayings. The confession...
ABBA OF ACRE (Acco) – A Palestinian amora who flourished at the end of the third century. He was greatly respected by Abbahu and praised as an example of modesty (Soṭah, 40a).Bibliography: Bacher, Ag. Pal. Amor. iii. 526.W. B.
ABBA ARIKA – Celebrated Babylonian amora and founder of the Academy of Sura; flourished in third century; died at Sura in 247. His surname, "Arika" (Aramaic, ; Hebrew, ; English, "Long"—that is, "Tall"; it occurs only once—Ḥul. 137b), he...
ABBA B. BIZNA – A Palestinian amora of the fourth century, who is occasionally mentioned as a haggadist, and as having handed down certain halakic opinions (Yer. B. Ḳ. v. 5a).Bibliography: Heilprin, Seder ha-Dorot, ii. 17; Bacher, Ag. Pal....
ABBA OF CARTHAGE – A Palestinian amora, who flourished at the end of the third century. His birthplace was Carthage, and it is incorrect to refer his surname to Cartagena in Spain or to a town of Armenia. He is frequently mentioned in the...
ABBA DORESH – A tanna, whose period can not be determined. Two of his interpretations have been preserved in Sifre, Deut. 308 and 352, and refer to Deut. xxxii. 5 and xxxiii. 11, respectively (see also Ex. R. 42).Bibliography: Bacher, Ag....
ABBA GORION OF SIDON – A tanna, who flourished in the second century. He handed down to posterity a saying of Abba Saul (Mishnah, Ḳid. iv. 14, Yerushalmi version) and one of Rabban Gamaliel II. That of Gamaliel, quoted in the introduction to Esther...
ABBA BAR ḤIYYA B. ABBA – A Palestinian amora, who flourished at the beginning of the fourth century. He was the son of Ḥiyya bar Abba, the well-known pupil of Johanan, and transmitted to his generation the sayings of Johanan, which in their turn had...
ABBA – A Babylonian amora of the third century, the son of Jeremiah b. Abba and a pupil of Rab. He lived at Sura and transmitted to his generation the sayings of Rab and Samuel. One of his sayings, several of which are preserved in...
ABBA BAR MEMEL – A Palestinian amora, who lived toward the end of the third century. He belonged to the circle of Ammi at Tiberias, and enjoyed the reputation of a great halakist. In three propositions he limited and rendered practically...
ABBA BAR PAPPAI – A Palestinian amora, of the fourth century who died 375. As the second link in the transmission by tradition ofLevi's haggadic sayings, he is generally mentioned together with Joshua of Siknin, who was the first link (Yer. Ber....
ABBA OF SIDON – A Palestinian amora of the latter part of the third century or the early part of the fourth. He is mentioned only once, as a transmitter of a haggadic saying of Samuel b. Naḥman (Midr. Sam. xxiii.; Eccl. R. vii. 1).W. B....
ABBA (BA) BAR ZABDAI – A Palestinian amora, who flourished in the third century. He studied in Babylonia, attending the lectures of Rab and Huna, and subsequently settled at Tiberias, where he occupied a respected position by the side of Ammi and...
ABBA BAR ZEBINA – A Palestinian amora of the fourth century. He was a pupil of R. Zeira, in whose name he transmitted many sayings. He was employed in Rome as a tailor in the house of a Gentile who, under the threat of death, tried to force him...
ABRAHAM (BEN GEDALIAH) BEN ASHER – A commentator; native of Safed, Syria; held rabbinical office at Aleppo in the second half of the sixteenth century. He was a pupil of Joseph Caro (1488-1575), with whom in later years he maintained a learned correspondence....
ABRAHAM BEN MORDECAI HA-LEVI – An Egyptian rabbi of the end of the seventeenth century. In 1691 he edited at Venice his father's responsa, "Darke No'am," adding a treatise of his own on circumcision, which, however, met with a great deal of opposition from...
ABRAHAM BEN MUSA (Moses) – Moroccan rabbi and cabalist of the first half of the seventeenth century, who studied the Cabala with Abraham Azulai. He wrote commentaries upon several treatises of the Talmud. His commentary on Nazir has been printed in the...
ACADEMIES IN BABYLONIA – The Jews of Babylonia, no doubt, shared in the changes and movements that Ezra and his successors, who came from Babylonia, introduced into Palestine. But for the four centuries covering the period from Ezra to Hillel there are...
ACADEMIES IN PALESTINE – According to an oft-quoted tradition of Hoshayah (a collector of Tannaite traditions, who lived in Cæsarea in the first half of the third century), there existed in Jerusalem 480 synagogues, all of which were destroyed with the...
ANILAI – Robber chieftains. Two Jewish boys of Nehardea in Babylonia were apprenticed by their widowed mother to a weaver. Having been punished for laziness by their master, they ran away and became freebooters in the marshlands of the...
ARAMAIC LANGUAGE AMONG THE JEWS – Considered Foreign by Ancient Hebrews. Of all Semitic languages the Aramaic is most closely related to the Hebrew, and forms with it, and possibly with the Assyrian, the northern group of Semitic languages. Aramaic,...