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Wilhelm Bacher, Ph.D.

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
SIMMLEIN OF HALBERSTADT – German Talmudist; rabbi at Halberstadt from 1620 to 1650. The period of his activity was practically coextensive with that of the Thirty Years' war, which was especially disastrous to the Jews. At Halberstadt,where the war...
SIMUNA (SEMONA) – Sabora of the second generation (Halevy, "Dorot ha-Rishonim," iii. 26); principal of the Academy of Pumbedita (520-540) while R. 'Ena was filling a similar position at Sura. According to Grätz, these two scholars committed the...
SINAI, MOUNT – Mount Horeb. —Biblical Data: Mountain situated in the desert of Sinai, famous for its connection with the promulgation of the Law by God through Moses (Ex. xix. 1-xx. 18). The general opinion of modern scholars is that the name...
SIRILLO, SOLOMON – Spanish Talmudist of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. He was one of the exiles of 1492, and settled at Safed, where he held a discussion with Jacob Berab over a decision concerning meat (Samuel of Modena, Responsa, No....
SLANDER – Poem Written on the Occasion of a Siyyum, Italian, Seventeenth Century.(In the United States National Museum, Washington, D. C.)False and malicious defamation of another's reputation and character, tending to disgrace him in the...
SLAVES AND SLAVERY – The Hebrew word "'ebed" really means "slave"; but the English Bible renders it "servant" (a) where the word is used figuratively, pious men being "servants of the Lord" (Isa. xx. 3), and courtiers "servants of the king" (Jer....
SOFERIM – Position Among the "Smaller Treatises." Talmudic treatise dealing especially with the rules relating to the preparation of the holy books, as well as with the regulations for the reading of the Law. It belongs to the so-called...
SOLOMON – Third king of all Israel; reigned from about 971 to 931 B.C ; second son of David and Bath-sheba (II Sam. xii. 23-25). He was called Jedidiah (= "beloved of Yhwh") by Nathan the prophet, the Chronicler (I Chron. xxii. 9)...
SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL – French Talmudist of the first half of the thirteenth century. He was rabbi at Montpellier, and leader of the movement against Maimonides. When Ibn Tibbon's translation of the "Moreh Nebukim" became known in southern France, it...
SOLOMON BEN ELIEZER HA-LEVI – Turkish Talmudist of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries; brother of Abraham b. Eliezer ha-Levi, who quotes him in his "Ma'amar ha-Yiḥud." Solomon was the author of "Moreh Ẓedeḳ," or "'Abodat ha-Lewi" (published perhaps at...
SOLOMON BEN ISAAC OF ORLEANS – French tosafist of the twelfth century; elder colleague of the tosafist Joseph ben Isaac of Orleans, together with whom he signed responsa ("Sefer ha-Yashar," pp.70-71, Vienna, 1810). Eliezer ben Joel ha-Levi, who quotes a...
SOLOMON BEN JUDAH OF CHÂTEAULANDON – French Talmudist of the end of the thirteenth century. He carried on a learned discussion with Samson of Chinon and Eliezer ben Joseph of Chinon regarding a document that had been antedated—a question which was laid before...
SOLOMON BEN MOSES CHELM – Polish rabbi of the eighteenth century; born at Samoscz, government of Lublin; died at Salonica in 1778. He was successively rabbi of Chelm, Samoscz (a district rabbinate), and Lemberg. To the last place Solomon was called in...
SOLOMON BEN MOSES BEN JEKUTHIEL DE ROSSI – Writer, and composer of synagogal hymns; flourished in Rome during the thirteenth century; died after 1284 in the prime of life. He was the earliest literary member of the Rossi family. His wife was Paola Anaw, the highly gifted...
SOLOMON BEN MOSES BEN JOSEPH – Italian liturgist of the thirteenth century; identified by some with Jehiel b. Jekuthiel Anaw, and by others with Solomon b. Jedidiah; a descendant probably of Zedekiah b. Benjamin Anaw. An exhortation called "Widdui" or...
SOLOMON OF TOURS – French Talmudist; contemporary of Rashi, with whom he carried on a learned correspondence. Rashi addresses him as "My dear friend." This expression, as well as the factthat Rashi points out an error which Solomon had made in...
SOLOMON IBN YA'ISH BEN ABRAHAM – 1. Spanish scholar, physician, and (probably) Biblical commentator; died at Seville in May, 1345. According to a Spanish tumular inscription of Seville, from which this date is taken, Solomon wrote many works on medical and...
SOṬAH – Treatise in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and Babylonian and Palestinian Talmuds, devoted in the main to an exact definition of the rules of procedure in the case of a wife either actually or supposedly unfaithful (Num. v. 11-31). In...
SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE – Proceeding by which a court compels an obligor to carry out his contract rather than make him pay damages in money for the breach of it. In English-American law the phrase is used almost exclusively in reference to a contract to...
STRIPES – Offenses. The only corporal punishment named in the Pentateuch is that of stripes; and the limitations put upon the judges are that they must cause the culprit to be beaten in their presence, and that the number of stripes...
SUBPŒNA – In English law, a writ which commands witnesses to come into court and to give testimony. Scripture (Lev. v. 1) makes it the duty of any one who has seen or heard things which are material to the right decision of a lawsuit,...
SUKKAH – Treatise in the Mishnah, the Tosefta, and both Talmudim, dealing chiefly with the regulations regarding the Feast of Tabernacles (Lev. xxiii. 34-36; Num. xxix. 12 et seq.; Deut. xvi. 13-16). In most of the editions it is the...
SUMMONS – Writ, process, or order sent by the court messenger ("sheluḥa di-rabbanan," or "sheluaḥ bet din"), and commanding a defendant to appear before the bet din. Raba, as dayyan, frequently indorsed such a document (Giṭ. 88a, and...
SUMPTUARY LAWS – Laws that restrict individual expenditures as to food, clothing, etc. In the Mishnah several expensive customs are abolished by reason of evil times which had come over Israel (Soṭah ix. 9): "During the war of Vespasian the use...
SUN, BLESSING OF THE – Formula of benediction recited on the day when the sun enters upon a new cycle, which occurs on the first Wednesday of Nisan every twenty-eight years. The present cycle commenced on the 5th of Nisan, 5657= April 7, 1897....