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Wilhelm Bacher, Ph.D.

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
SURETYSHIP – Arrabo." The liability, contract, or undertaking of one who becomes a surety. Reference to a surety occurs only once in the Pentateuch; namely, in Gen. xliii. 9, where Judah tells Jacob that he will be surety for Benjamin's safe...
SYNAGOGUE – Established During the Exile. The origin of the synagogue, in which the congregation gathered to worship and to receive the religious instruction connected therewith, is wrapped in obscurity. By the time it had become the...
SYNAGOGUE – Established During the Exile. The origin of the synagogue, in which the congregation gathered to worship and to receive the religious instruction connected therewith, is wrapped in obscurity. By the time it had become the...
SYNAGOGUE, THE GREAT – Included the Last Prophets. The members of the Great Synagogue, or the Great Assembly, are designated in the Mishnah (Ab. i. 1) as those representatives of the Law who occupied a place in the chain of tradition between the...
SYNOD OF USHA – Assembled at Usha. In the middle of the second century C.E. an important synod of rabbinical authorities was convened in the Galilean city of Usha, near Shefar'am, Tiberias, and Sepphoris. There also R. Judah B. Baba ordained...
TA'ANIT – Treatise in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and both Talmuds, devoted chiefly to the fast-days, the practises peculiar to them, and the prayers which must be said thereon. In most editions this treatise is the ninth in the mishnaic order...
ṬABI – 1. Slave of Gamaliel II., known for his acquaintance with the Talmudic laws and for his piety; mentioned in several instances in the Mishnah. During the Feast of Tabernacles, Ṭabi used to sleep under the bed in the booth. In...
TABLES OF THE LAW – Tablets containing the Ten Commandments.—Biblical Data: Moses, bidden to go up to God on the mountain to receive "tables of stone, and a law ["Torah"], and commandments ["miẓwot"]" (Ex. xxiv. 12, R. V.), is given "two tables of...
TABYOMI – Babylonian amora of the fifth century; died at the end of Yom Kippur, 468. He achieved a reputation as a teacher of the Law even during the lifetime of his father, Ashi, the famous director of the Academy of Sura (see Ber. 26a;...
TAḲḲANAH – An enactment which (1) revises an ordinance that no longer satisfies the requirements of the times or circumstances, or which (2), being deduced from a Biblical passage, may be regarded as new. It is, therefore, the antithesis...
TALMUD – Name of two works which have been preserved to posterity as the product of the Palestinian and Babylonian schools during the amoraic period, which extended from the third to the fifth century C.E. One of these compilations is...
TALMUD COMMENTARIES – Earliest Attempts. The commentaries on the Talmud constitute only a small part of halakic literature in comparison with the responsa literature and the commentaries on the codices. At the time when the Talmud was concluded the...
TALMUD HERMENEUTICS – Classes of Rules. The science which defines the rules and methods for the investigation and exact determination of the meaning of the Scriptures, both legal and historical. Since the Halakah, however, is regarded simply as an...
TALMUDIC LAW – Three Historical Periods of Jewish Law. The development of thousands of years is represented by the Jewish law asit is found in the Shulḥan 'Aruk, Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ, of Joseph Caro (16th cent.), as well as in numerous other works...
TAMID – Treatise in the Mishnah and the Babylonian Gemara; devoted chiefly to the regulations regarding the morning and evening burnt offerings (comp. Ex. xxix. 38-42; Num. xxviii. 3-8), but dealing also with other ceremonies in the...
TANḤUM BAR ḤANILAI – Palestinian amora of the third century, although his father's name suggests a Babylonian origin. He transmitted the sayings of Joshua ben Levi, Johanan, and Bar Ḳappara. In the Babylonian Talmud he appears as the author of...
TANḤUM B. ḤIYYA – Palestinian amora of the third century; a pupil of Simeon b. Pazzi, whose sayings he transmits. In the Babylonian Talmud he is constantly referred to as R. Tanḥum b. Ḥiyya of Kefar 'Akko (M. Ḳ. 25b; Yeb. 45a), of which place he...
TANḤUM BEN JOSEPH YERUSHALMI – Oriental philologist and exegete of the thirteenth century. He was a scholar of great merit and was one of the last representatives of the rationalistic school of Biblical exegesis in the Orient; he is called by modern writers...
TANḤUMA B. ABBA – Palestinian amora of the fifth generation; one of the foremost haggadists of his time. He was a pupil of Ḥuna b. Abin (Num. R. iii.; Gen. R. xli.), from whom he transmits ha-lakic (Yer. Ḥal. 57d; Shab. 10c) as well as haggadic...
TANḤUMA, MIDRASH – Three Midrashim. Name given to three different collections of Pentateuch haggadot; two are extant, while the third is known only through citations. These midrashim, although bearing the name of R. Tanḥuma, must not be regarded...
TANḤUMA B. SKOLASTIḲAI – Palestinian teacher of the Law. His period is not known, but according to a conjecture (see "'Aruk," s.v. "Askolastika") he was the son of that Joshua b. Hananiah who in Gen. R. lxiv. 10 is called "Askolastikus." Tanḥuma is...
TANḤUMA B. SKOLASTIḲAI – Palestinian teacher of the Law. His period is not known, but according to a conjecture (see "'Aruk," s.v. "Askolastika") he was the son of that Joshua b. Hananiah who in Gen. R. lxiv. 10 is called "Askolastikus." Tanḥuma is...
TANNA DEBE ELIYAHU – Origin of the Name. Composite name of a midrash, consisting of two parts, whose final redaction took place at the end of the tenth century of the common era. The first part is called "Seder Eliyahu Rabbah" (thirty-one chapters);...
TANNAIM AND AMORAIM – The Name. The name "tanna" is derived from the Aramaic "teni" or "tena" (="to teach"), and designates in general a teacher of the oral law, and in particular one of the sages of the Mishnah, those teachers of the oral law whose...
TANYA – Collection of ritual laws and customs, published first at Mantua, 1514, then at Cremona, 1565, and later in two other editions. The epigraph of the Mantua edition reads as follows: '"Minhag Abot Sefer Tanya' was terminated in...