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W. Max Muller, Ph.D.

Professor of Bible Exegesis, Reformed Episcopal Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, Pa.

Contributions:
CAPHTOR – Original country of the Philistines before their emigration into Palestine, whence their name, "Caphtorim" (Deut. ii. 23; Amos ix. 7; Jer. xlvii. 4, where they are called "the remnant of the country [Hebrew, "island"] of...
CARCHEMISH – City of northern Syria, on the Euphrates. Its importance seems to have been based on its situation at the end of the most direct route from the mouth of the Orontes to the Euphrates and to Harran. This position explains why it...
CARITES – People mentioned in II Kings xi. 4, 19. The Kari (R. V., "Carites"; margin, "executioners", A. V., "captains") are mentioned between the captains over hundreds and the "runners" (i.e., satellites) as body-guards of the king. In...
CASLUHIM – According to Gen. x. 14 (= I Chron. i. 12), the Casluhim are sons of Mizraim; i.e., a part or dependency of the Egyptians. Bochart ("Geographia Sacra," iv. 31) knew no better identification than the Colchians in the eastern...
CHERETHITES – Biblical Data: Probably the name of a part of the Philistines; usually, however, designating the whole nation, as in Zeph. ii. 5, where "the nation of the Cherethites" evidently means the Philistines in general. Similarly, Ezek....
CŒLE-SYRIA – The name, occurring in the Greek apocryphal writings, of a Persian province lying between Egypt and the Euphrates. In old editions it is given as "Celosyria." This name stands for the earlier expression "the, country beyond the...
CUSH – Biblical Data: A nation whose founder is mentioned in Gen. x. 6; I Chron. i. 8 as brother to Mizraim (Egypt) and as a son of Ham; with the exception of the passages in Genesis, A. V. renders it "Ethiopia." This African country...
EGYPT – Ancient and Biblical: The valley of the Nile north of the first cataract, having an area of 9,000-12,000 square miles of arable ground. Almost rainless, the country depends upon the inundations of the Nile and artificial...
ETHIOPIA – The translation in the Authorized Version, following the ancient versions, of a name covering three different countries and peoples, viz.: (1) Ethiopia proper; (2) parts of northern Arabia; and (3) the regions east of Babylonia....
GOSHEN – Region of Egypt which the Israelites inhabited during their sojourn in that country. It is described as situated on the eastern frontier of Lower Egypt (Gen. xlvi. 28, 29; Ex. xiii. 17; I Chron. vii. 21), forming an outpost of...
HELIOPOLIS (ON) – Egyptian city, whence came Poti-pherah, Joseph's father-in-law (Gen. xli. 45, 50; xlvi. 20). It is mentioned also in Ezek. xxx. 17, where the punctuation , Awen, is to be corrected to , On. The versions render "Heliopolis" in...
MANETHO – Greco-Egyptian writer whose history of Egypt, forming a source of Josephus, especially in his book "Contra Apionem" (i. 14 et seq.; ed. Niese, §§ 73-105; 228-251), possesses special interest for the history of Israel.Manetho was...
MEMPHIS – City of ancient Egypt, situated about ten miles south of modern Cairo. "Memphis" is the Greek form of the Egyptian "Menfe," and is used in Hos. ix. 6, A. V., and in Isa. xix. 13, R. V., margin (comp. Judith i. 10). The Hebrew...
MERNEPTAḤ – Egyptian king, the fourth of the 19th dynasty; a prominent figure in the discussions concerning the historicalness and chronology of Israel's exodus from Egypt. He was the son and successor of the famous Rameses II. (Sesostris),...
NILE – The great river of Egypt; frequently referred to in the Bible. The Authorized Version everywhere renders the word employed, "ye'or," by "river." "Ye'or" has no Semitic etymology (as, e.g., Lagarde and Fr. Delitzsch have...
NOPH – City of ancient Egypt, mentioned in Isa. xix. 13, Jer. ii. 16, xliv. 1, xlvi. 14, and Ezek. xxx. 13, 16. All the ancient versions render it "Memphis," so that, evidently, the name has been disfigured from the more correct form...
RAMESES – 1. Egyptian city; one of the "treasure cities" built by the Israelites in their servitude (Ex. i. 11: "Raamses"); the point from which they started on their journey through the wilderness (Ex. xii. 37). Further, the northeast...
TIRHAKAH – King of Ethiopia (i.e., Nubia). When Sennacherib and his general (Rabshakeh) were besieging Lachish, Libnah, and Jerusalem, it was reported that Tirhakah was approaching with an army to assist the Palestinians against the...
TYRE – Principal city of Phenicia. By "the strong city Tyre," mentioned in Josh. xix. 29 and II Sam. xxiv. 7 as marking the frontier of Israel (Asher), is evidently meant not the main city, but an outpost in the mountains protecting...
ZAPHNATH-PAANEAH – Name given by Pharaoh to Joseph (Gen. xli. 45). It seems to be an Egyptian name, but its etymology is in doubt. It is not plain on what (Hebrew ?) etymology the earliest explanations of Hebrew scholars were founded. Targum...
ZOAN – An important Egyptian city of great antiquity, almost as old as Hebron (Num. xiii. 22). The "princes of Zoan" are ranked in Isa. xix. 11, 13 with those of Noph (Memphis), and the city itself is mentioned in Ezek. xxx. 14...