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Wilhelm Nowack, Ph.D.

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Strasburg, Germany.

Contributions:
BILDAD – One of the three friends of Job (Job ii. 11). The meaning of the name is not clear; opinions of scholars vacillate between rendering "Bel has loved" (compare "Eldad," Num. xi. 26 et seq., and "Elidad," Num. xxxiv. 21; Nöldeke,...
BILHAH – A locality in southern Judea (I Chron. iv. 29), evidently the same as "Balah" ( , Josh. xix. 3) and "Ba'alah" ( , Josh. xv. 29).G. W. N.
BILHAH – Biblical Data: Rachel's handmaid, given by Rachel as a concubine to Jacob, to whom, according to Gen. xxx. 3 (compare Gen. xxix. 29, xxxvii. 2), she bore Dan and Naphtali upon Rachel's knees. The expression signifies that...
BILHAH – Biblical Data: Rachel's handmaid, given by Rachel as a concubine to Jacob, to whom, according to Gen. xxx. 3 (compare Gen. xxix. 29, xxxvii. 2), she bore Dan and Naphtali upon Rachel's knees. The expression signifies that...
BIRDS – Biblical Data: The general designation for winged animals is "'of" ( , Hosea ix. 11; Isa. xvi. 2) or "'of kanaf" ( , Gen. i. 21), "ẓippor" ( , Gen. xv. 10), or "ẓippor kanaf" ( , Deut. iv. 17; Ps. cxlviii. 10), or "ba'al kanaf"...
BLESSING AND CURSING – Efficacy of Blessing and Cursing. The Hebrew verb for "bless" is "berek" ( ). Since in Assyrian and Minæan the corresponding verb appears to be "karabu," it is not likely that the Hebrew is connected with its homonym "berek" (...
BRACELETS – Gold Bracelet from Cyprus.(From the Cesnola collection in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.)Ornaments in the form of rings for the arm, worn by the Hebrews, as well as by all ancient peoples. Besides serving as ornaments...
CANDLESTICK – Mentioned as a secular object only in II Kings iv. 10. The candlestick in the Temple, however, is frequently referred to, although there is no reliable definite information from earlier times concerning its use or its...
CAVES IN PALESTINE – By "me'arah" ( ) the Hebrew designates natural caves. The mountains of Palestine, which for the greater part are formations of soft limestone, abound in natural caves and grottoes. Most of these have developed from an initial...
CHARIOT – Vehicles are designated in Hebrew chiefly by two expressions, "'agalah" and "rakab," with "merkab" and "merkabah" derived from the latter. The former denotes the wagon used for heavy loads and general work, the name being...
CLOUD, PILLAR OF – Biblical Data: When Israel was marching through the wilderness, Yhwh, wrapped in a pillar of cloud, preceded the people in order to show them the right way. During the night the cloud turned into a pillar of fire (Ex. xiii. 21;...
CLOUD, PILLAR OF – Biblical Data: When Israel was marching through the wilderness, Yhwh, wrapped in a pillar of cloud, preceded the people in order to show them the right way. During the night the cloud turned into a pillar of fire (Ex. xiii. 21;...
COAL – Expressed in the Bible by two words, (Prov. xxvi. 21; Isa. xliv. 12, liv. 16) and (Ps. xviii. 9 [A. V. 8]; Prov. xxv. 22). Since means "to glow" or "to burn," probably means "the glowing," and , "black coal" (compare Prov. xxvi....
COPPER – The first common metal to come into use, as it is easily obtained and readily worked. Burial-places in which utensils, weapons, etc., of iron are found are ascribed to a later period than are those containing copper or bronze...
COSTUME – In Biblical Times: The general Hebrew designation for "costume" is "beged," applied indifferently to the garments of rich and poor, male and female. Other general designations are "keli," "lebush," "malbush," "tilboshet," and...
COUCH – Structure on which to rest or sleep. The Hebrew term , meaning "divan" as well as "bed," is synonymous with (Amos iii. 12) and (II Sam. xvii. 28). In olden times the Jewish bed, a plain wooden frame with feet, and a slightly...
DRINKING-VESSELS – Less is known of the form and material of the drinking-vessels of the Hebrews than of those of the Greeks and the Romans. The water-skin ("hemet," Gen. xxi. 15, 19; "ob," Job xxxii. 19; and "nod," Judges iv. 19), made of the...
EUNUCH – Biblical Data: As throughout the Orient in very ancient times, and more especially in Egypt and Assyria, where they seem to have held the most important offices, there were eunuchs in the kingdom of Israel. The reference to them...
FEET, WASHING OF – Biblical Data: Since the Israelites, like all other Oriental peoples, wore sandals instead of shoes, and as they usually went barefoot in the house, frequent washing of the feet was a necessity. Hence among the Israelites it was...
FIRST-FRUITS – Biblical Data: As the firstling among the cattle, so the first-fruits of the field ("reshit," "ḥeleb" [LXX. ἀπαρχή], "bikkurim" [LXX. πρωτογεννήματα]), of corn, of wine, and of oil belonged to Yhwh. According to Ex. xxii. 28 (A....
FOOD – Biblical Data: There are two main divisions of food, vegetable and animal.I. Vegetable Food: As among all the Oriental peoples, and as is the case even to-day among the fellaheen of Syria, vegetable food, and chiefly grain...
FORTRESS – Principal Fortresses. A permanent fort or fortified place. The Israelites, when advancing into the country west of the Jordan, found a considerable number of walled cities and fortresses which they could not conquer (Num. xiii....
HAMMER – The following designations for "hammer" are found in the Hebrew Bible:1. "Maḳḳabah" ("maḳḳebet"): A tool or implement used by the stone-cutter for hewing stone (I Kings vi. 7); by the smith in fashioning iron (Isa. xliv. 12), or...
HARVEST – The Palestinian harvest began in April with the cutting (hence "ḳaẓir") of the barley. The lentil and pea ripened at the same time, and the reaping of the wheat and spelt followed two weeks later, although, of course, the time...
HEAD-DRESS – Covering or ornament for the head. Very little information is obtainable as to the adornment and covering for the head in use among the Israelites of antiquity. The Old Testament sources contain scarcely anything on this...