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M. Seligsohn,

Diplomé of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes, Paris, France; now New York City.

Contributions:
EZION - GEBER – A maritime place of Idumæa, situated on the Ælanitic Gulf of the Red Sea, not far from Elath or Eloth (Deut. ii. 8; I Kings ix, 26; II Chron. viii. 17). It was the last encampment of the Israelites before they came to the...
EZRA, BOOK OF – Biblical Data: The contents of the book are as follows:Synopsis of Contents. Ch. i.: Cyrus, inspired by Jehovah, permits the Israelites to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem, and returns to them the golden vessels which had been...
FAḌL, DA'UD ABU AL- – Karaite physician; born at Cairo 1161; died there about 1242. Having studied medicine under the Jewish physician Hibat Allah ibn Jami', and under Abu al-Faḍa'il ibnNaḳid, he became the court physician of the sultan Al-Malik...
FAIRS – Ancient Fairs. Periodical assemblies for the purchase and the sale of goods. Talmudic authorities were opposed to the attendance of Jews at fairs on the ground that they are an outgrowth of pagan festivals. The Talmudic word for...
FALERO, ABRAHAM ABOAB – Portuguese philanthropist; died at Verona 1642. At the beginning of the seventeenth century or perhaps even at the end of the sixteenth he settled at Hamburg. There he built a synagogue, named "Keter Torah," for the Portuguese...
FALK (V05p332001.jpg), JOSHUA BEN ALEXANDER HA-าOHEN – Polish Talmudist; born at Lublin; died at Lemberg March 29, 1614. His name occurs as "RaFaK" (= "R. Falk Kohen") and "Ma-HaRWaK" (= "Morenu ha-Rab Walk Kohen"). He was a pupil of his relative Moses Isserles and of Solomon Luria,...
FAMINE – A general scarcity of food, resulting as from drought, war, hail, flood, or insects. The land of Canaan is said in the Bible to have been several times afflicted with distressing famine, which is frequently mentioned together...
FANO – Name of an Italian family, members of which have been prominent as scholars since the sixteenth century. Among them the following may be mentioned:Abraham ben Moses da Fano: Italian scholar of the fifteenth (?) century; author...
FARḤI, ḤAYYIM MU'ALLIM – Minister of the Pasha of Damascus and Acre; born at Damascus about the middle of the eighteenth century; assassinated in 1820. This remarkable statesman for more than forty years governed a part of the Turkish empire. His...
FARḤI, ISAAC – Dayyan and almoner of Jerusalem; born at Safed; died at Jerusalem May 11, 1853. About 1840 Farḥi was sent to Europe by the rabbinate of Jerusalem to collect contributions for the poor. He was the author of "Marpe la-'Eẓem,"...
FARḤI, JOSEPH SHABBETHAI – Talmudic scholar and cabalist; born at Jerusalem about 1802; died at Leghorn, Italy, in 1882. Farḥi was an earnest cabalist; he believed that after death the human body undergoes the trial of purgatory which the cabalists call...
FARISSOL (PERIZOL), ABRAHAM BEN MORDECAI – Italian scholar and geographer; born at Avignon, France, 1451; died, according to Grätz ("Geschichte," ix. 44), in 1525; Zunz, however ("G. S." i. 178), says that he was living in 1526. In 1468 he was at Avignon, but soon...
FARISSOL, JUDAH – Italian mathematician and astronomer; flourished at Mantua at the end of the fifteenth century. In 1499 he wrote "Iggeret Sefirah," a description of the astronomical sphere, with diagrams.Bibliography: Steinschneider, Jewish,...
FARRAR (FERRAR), ABRAHAM – Portuguese physician and poet; born at Porto; died at Amsterdam 1663. After practising medicine at Lisbon, Farrar emigrated to Amsterdam, where he became (1639) president of the Portuguese community. He was a nephew of Jacob...
FAYYUMI, NATHANAEL AL- – Talmudic scholar and philosopher; flourished in Yemen about the middle of the twelfth century. He wrote a philosophical work in Judæo-Arabic, called "Bustan al'Uḳul," which he divided into seven parts: (1) the unity of God, (2)...
FERRARA – In the Thirteenth Century. City in central Italy; capital of the province and former duchy of the same name. The Jewish community of Ferrara was one of the most flourishing and important in Italy, and it gave to Judaism a number...
FERREOLUS – Bishop of Uzès, France (553-581). As soon as he had obtained the bishopric he showed great zeal in trying to convert the many Jews of Uzès. At first he treated them kindly, even inviting them to his table. Complaint was brought...
FETTERS – Chains or shackles by which the feet may be fastened either together or to some heavy object. The most usual term for fetters in the Bible is "neḥushtayim" (Judges xvi. 21; II Sam. iii. 34; II Kings xxv. 7; Jer. xxxix. 7, lii....
FETTMILCH, VINCENT – The Riot. Leader of the gilds of Frankfort-on-the-Main against the Jews in 1612, and instigator of the riots which led to the expulsion of the latter from that city in 1614; he was hanged in 1616. Fettmilch came of a family of...
FIAMETTA, JOSEPH BEN SOLOMON – Rabbi of Ancona, Italy; died in 1721. His name iswritten variously: Wolf, in the Latin transcription of his name, gives "Flamneta"; Carmoly ("Hist. des Médecins Juifs," p. 237) has "Piamita"; and Delitzsch ("Zur Geschichte der...
FIGAH – River in the Damascene, affluent of the Barada (the Biblical "Abana"). "Figah" comes from the Greek πηγὴ, and is still to be found in the name "'Ain Fijah," the chief source of the Barada. Reland has identified it with Pliny's...
FIGO (PIGO), AZARIAH BEN EPHRAIM – Preacher at Venice; died at Rovigo 1647. Figo was an excellent scribe, and the scrolls which he wrote are highly prized. He was the author of "Iggerot u-Teshubot," letters and responsa, published in a similar work entitled...
FINTA – A Spanish term signifying a tax which is paid to the government. It is still used—for example, in London by the Spanish and Portuguese congregations to designate a part of their revenue, levied by assessors ("fintadores")...
FIRUZ-SHABUR – City of Babylonia; the "Sipphara" of Ptolemy and the Βηρσαβῶρα of Zosimus; situated a few miles South of Nehardea; built by Shabur I. about 250 C.E. In Berakot 59b it is called . "Formerly one who saw the Euphrates at the bridge...
FISCHEL, ABRAHAM JEHIEL BEN ZE'EB WOLF – German rabbi of the eighteenth century. He was the author of a work entitled "Imrah Ẓerufah," novellæ on several treatises of the Talmud and on Maimonides (Berlin, 1755).Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 690.S. S. M....