The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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S. Schulman,

Associate Rabbi of Temple Beth-El, New York City.

CALUMNY – Evil-speaking; a sin regarded with intense aversion both in the Bible and in rabbinical literature. The technical term for it in the latter is (leshon hara', "the evil tongue"). In the Bible the equivalent words are: , meaning...
CARDINAL VIRTUES – Virtues regarded as fundamental, and under which, as heads, all others may be arranged. The term "cardinal virtues" is first used by Ambrose to denote that group of four virtues which became familiar through the writings of...