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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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ADDAN – A city of Babylonia, some of the inhabitants of which migrated with the Jews under Zerubbabel, but were unable to prove their Israelitish descent (Ezra, ii. 59). In the corresponding list of Neh. vii. 61, the place is called...
ADDER – Reptile mentioned only in Gen. xlix. 17. It is the modern Arabic shiphon, a horned sand-snake, or Cerastes haselquistii (Hart, "Animals of the Bible," pp. 13, 14). This viper, which is only about a foot long and of a grayish...
ADDIR HU – A hymn in the Seder, the home service for Passover eve, and so called from its initial words, but also known by its refrain of "Bimherah" (Speedily). It is one of the latest constituents of the Haggadah, in which it does not...
ADDISON, JOSEPH – English essayist; born at Milston, in England, May 1, 1672; died June 17, 1719. He has been fittingly characterized as "the chief architect of English public opinion in the eighteenth century." For this reason his attitude...
ADDISON, LANCELOT – English clergyman and author; father of Joseph Addison; born at Meaburn Town Head, in the parish of Crosby Ravensworth, Westmoreland, 1632; died April 20, 1703. He was educated at Queen's College, Oxford, and served seven years...
ADDO – See Iddo.
ADDON – See Addan.
ADELAIDE – Capital city of South Australia. The history of the Jewish community of this city is closely connected with a pioneer settler, Jacob Montefiore, who took a prominent part in the foundation of both the colony and the community....
ADELKIND – A prænomen; also a family name among the Jews. As the former it is found in a list of martyrs in Nuremberg in the year 1298, and also occurs in a similar list for Weissensee of the year 1303. As a family name it is first met...
ADELSOHN, WOLF – Russian-Hebrew scholar and teacher; born in Lithuania about the beginning of the nineteenth century; died in Odessa, August 13, 1866. Of his parentage nothing is known. Adelsohn was a disciple of Rabbi Manasseh ben Porath,...
ADEN – Port in western Arabia on the shores of the Red Sea, near the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb; a British possession since 1839. In 1891 its population was 41,910. In 1881 there were in Aden 2,121 Jews, including 125 Beni Israel from...
ADENI, SOLOMON BEN JOSHUA – Arabian author and Talmudist, who lived during the first half of the seventeenth century at Sanaa and Aden in southern Arabia, from which town he received the name "Adeni" or "the Adenite." He was a pupil of the Talmudist...
ADERSBACH, G. A. – German poet; died in 1823. He belonged to the generation that, in the first quarter of the nineteenth century, took anactive part in the struggle for Jewish emancipation. In his contributions to the "Sulamith" (vol. v.) he...
ADHAN – A family of northern Africa, several members of which figure in Jewish literature. The family name was originally Aldahhan. In Old Arabic this signifies "an oil merchant"; in the modern Arabic of Morocco it means "a painter" or...
ADHAN, SOLOMON BEN MASUD – Translator and author, who lived in the first half of the eighteenth century. He went from Tafilet, Morocco, to Amsterdam so as to obtain the necessary means for the ransom of his family and of his synagogue from the hands of...
ADIABENE – A district in Mesopotamia between the Upper Zab (Lycus) and the Lower Zab (Caprus), though Ammianus ("Hist." xviii., vii. 1) speaks of Nineveh, Ecbatana, and Gaugamela as also belonging to it. For some centuries, beginning with...
ADIBE, JACOB – A Jew, exiled from Portugal in 1496, who dwelt at Azamor in the province of Duccala, Morocco. In 1512 the ruler of Azamor had surrendered to the sovereignty of Portugal, but soon renounced his allegiance. King Manuel thereupon...
ADIDO – See Hadido.
ADIEL – 1. A prince of the family of Simeon, who captured Gedor in the days of Hezekiah (I Chron. iv. 36). 2. A priest, son of Jahzerah (I Chron. ix. 12). 3. The father of Azmaveth, who was "over the king's [David's] treasures" (I...
ADINO THE EZNITE – Biblical Data: In II Sam. xxiii. 8 et seq., in which the names of David's heroes are recorded, occur two mysterious words, (according to the ḳeri), which came to be regarded as the designation of one of the heroes. They are thus...
ADIYA – See Samuel ibn Adiya.
ADJIMAN – Jewish family in Turkey, several members of which were treasurers and intendants-general of the janizaries. Meir Adjiman, who lived under Selim III., possessed such influence that he was able to promote a simple janizary private...
ADJURATION, TALMUDICAL MODE OF – See Oath.
ADLER – A family that came originally from Frankfort, but which has been connected for more than a century with the chief rabbinate of England. Tebele Schiff, who was chief rabbi of London, was, it is true, only connected by marriage...
ADLER, ABRAHAM JACOB ("Koppel") – German rabbi, educator; born in 1813; died at Worms in 1856. He was the son of Isaac Adler, associate rabbi in Worms, and brother of Rabbi Samuel Adler. He studied at the universities of Bonn and Giessen, and afterward went to...