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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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ADOMIM BEN TAMIM – See Dunash ben Tamim.
ADONAI – Pronunciation. This word occurs in the Masoretic text 315 times by the side of the Tetragram YHWH (310 times preceding and five times succeeding it) and 134 times without it. Originally an appellation of God, the word became a...
ADONAI, ADONAI – The pizmon (hymn) on the thirteen Attributes of God in the seliḥot (propitiatory prayers) for the fifth intermediate day of the Ten Days of Penitence, according to the northern liturgies. It is repeated in full in the "Ne'ilah"...
ADONAI BEḲOL SHOFAR – A short pizmon of four stanzas, each ending and commencing with the respective halves of Ps. xlvii. 6. It is chanted in the Sephardic liturgy before the first sounding of the shofar on the Day of Memorial, or New-year festival....
ADONAI MELEK – A refrain of frequent occurrence, particularly during the services of the days of penitence, built up of the following Scriptural phrases: "The Lord reigneth" (Ps. x. 16, Heb.); "The Lord reigneth" (Ps. xciii. 1); and "The Lord...
ADONI-BEZEK – Biblical Data: Canaanitish king (Judges, i. 5-7), in the town of Bezek. He was routed by Judah and fled, but was caught. His thumbs and great toes were cut off, as a divine retribution—as he himself acknowledged—for the same...
ADONIJAH – Biblical Data: 1. Fourth son of David, by Haggith. After Absalom's death he claimed to be the rightful heir to the throne, by summoning the court officials to a solemn sacrifice (I Kings, i. 5). Adonijah was supplanted by...
ADONIM HA-LEVI – See Dunash ben Labrat.
ADONIRAM – Superintendent of the collection of taxes in the reigns of David, Solomon, and Rehoboam ("Adoram," II Sam. xx. 24; "Hadoram," II Chron. x. 18). In both cases, the Septuagint gives "Adoniram." He was stoned to death by the...
ADONIS (BAAL OF THE PHENICIANS) – See Tammuz.
ADONIS PLANT – See Naaman.
ADONI-ZEDEK – King of Jerusalem at the time of the Hebrew invasion of Palestine (Josh. x. 1, 3). He led a coalition of five of the neighboring Amorite cities to resist the invasion, but the allies were defeated at Gibeon, and suffered at...
ADON 'OLAM – One of the few strictly metrical hymns in the Jewish liturgy, the nobility of the diction of which and the smoothness of whose versification have given it unusual importance. According to the custom of the Sephardim and in...
ADOPTION – The adrogatio of the older Roman law—a legal process by which a man can create betweenhimself and a person not his child relations that properly belong only to father and child—is unknown to both Biblical and Talmudic law. But...
ADORAIM – Fortified city built by Rehoboam in Judah; now called Dura (II Chron. xi. 9 et seq.).G. B. L.
ADORAM – See Adoniram.
ADORATION, FORMS OF – The various gestures and postures expressive of homage. In religious adorations these gestures and postures were originally innate and natural expressions of religious feeling, but in the course of religious development they...
ADRAMMELECH – Biblical Data: 1. Mentioned in II Kings, xvii. 31, as a god of Sepharvaim, which until recently was supposed to be the Hebrew name for the Babylonian city Sippar. After the inhabitants of Sepharvaim had been deported to Samaria...
ADRET – A prominent Spanish-Jewish family, members of which are known from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century. In Spanish documents the name is always written Adret, and in a Hebrew manuscript in the Bodleian Library (No. 2218 =...
ADRET, MOSES – Cabalist of the eighteenth century; lived and died in Smyrna. He possessed an extraordinary memory and was thoroughly acquainted with Talmudic and rabbinic literature. He composed twelve works, among which were commentaries on...
ADRET, SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM – Spanish rabbi; born in 1235 at Barcelona; died in 1310. As a rabbinical authority hisfame was such that he was designated as El Rab d'España ("The Rabbi of Spain"). A manuscript purporting to be a certificate of indebtedness,...
ADRIANOPLE – Legendary Blood Accusation. A city of Turkey in Europe with a population of 70,000, of whom about 8,000 are Jews. The first trace of a Jewish settlement in this city (according to a somewhat doubtful source found in E. Deinard's...
ADRIANUS, MATTHÆUS – Hebraist of the sixteenth century. He was a Jew of Spanish descent, but at an early age migrated to Germany, where he embraced Christianity. Though a physician by profession, he achieved eminence mainly as an instructor in...
ADRIEL – The Meholathite to whom Merab (Saul's daughter) was given in marriage instead of to David (I Sam. xviii. 19); son of Barzillai (II Sam. xxi. 8). As to the meaning of the name, Adriel appears to be an Aramaized form of Azriel...
ADULA OF TUNIS – A Jew who, to avoid being baptized, committed suicide in the house of the catechumen in Rome, on May 2, 1666, at the moment he was about to undergo the rite.Bibliography: Vogelstein and Rieger, Gesch. d. Juden in Rom, ii. 219;...