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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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BABYLON – Biblical Data: The chief city of Babylonia, long the capital of the kingdom and empire that controlled the whole or a large part of the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates.In Hebrew Tradition. This city has several names or...
BABYLONIA – General Data: A country in western Asia of varying limits at different periods. The natural boundaries were the Persian gulf on the south, the Tigris on the east, and the Arabian desert on the west. On the north the boundary...
BABYLONIAN EXILE – See Captivity, Babylonian.
BABYLONIAN PUNCTUATION – See Punctuation.
BABYLONISH GARMENT – Biblical Data: An article of dress mentioned in connection with the theft of Achan (Josh. vii. 21) during the spoil of the captured city of Jericho. The connection would indicate that the garment was one of considerable value....
BACA, THE VALLEY OF – A valley mentioned in Ps. lxxxiv. 7 [6 A. V.]. Since it is there said that pilgrims transform the valley into a land of wells, the old translators gave to "Baca" the meaning of a "valley of weeping"; but it signifies rather any...
BACAU – Capital of a district of the same name, situated in the southwest of Moldavia, a division of Rumania, with a population of 15,000, one-half of whom are Jews. A census taken in 1876 enumerated 743 Jewish families at that time....
BACCHIDES – Syrian general; friend of the Syrian king Demetrius; and "ruler in the country beyond the river"—Euphrates. Demetrius sent him in 161 B.C. to Judea with a large army, in order to invest the recreant Alcimus with the office of...
BACH, EMILIE – Artist and journalist; born at Neuschloss, Bohemia, July 2, 1840; died at Vienna April 29, 1890. She was directress of the royal school for artistic embroidery, and published on this subject two works: "Muster Stilvoller...
BACH, JOSEPH – Hungarian rabbi; born in 1784; died at Budapest Feb. 3, 1866. After I. N. Mannheimer, he was the first German preacher of a Jewish congregation in Austria-Hungary. At Alt-Ofen, his birthplace, he began to ground himself early in...
BACH, KARL DANIEL FRIEDRICH – German painter; born at Potsdam May, 1756; died at Breslau April 8, 1829 (according to some sources in 1826). As his father was a merchant and an elder (Landesältester) of the Brandenburg Jewry, Karl was enabled to obtain from...
BACHARACH – City in the Prussian government district of Coblenz. On April 19, 1283, twenty-six Jews were murdered there, among them the boy Hezekiah, whose father, Jacob, had been killed at Lorch in 1276. In 1287 the Bacharach Jews were...
BACHARACH – A name frequent among German Jews. From the twelfth, or at any rate from the fifteenth century, the name Bacharach, in various spellings—as Bacharach, Bachrach, Bachrich, etc.—is found among the Ashkenazim in all parts of...
BACHARACH, ABRAHAM AARON B. MENAHEM MAN (= AARON MANELES) – Writer on religious subjects, and cantor of Posen, hence known also as Aaron Ḥazzan; flourished during the seventeenth century. He was the author of "Urim we-Tummim" (Enlightenment and Perfection), an exhortation to morality and...
BACHARACH, ABRAHAM SAMUEL – Rabbi; born about 1575; died in Gernsheim, grandduchy of Hesse, May 26, 1615. He seems to have come from the city of Worms, but is first met with at Prague, where, in 1600, he married Eva, the granddaughter of the chief rabbi of...
BACHARACH, EVA – Hebraist and rabbinical scholar; born at Prague about 1580; died in Sofia, 1651. She was the daughter of Isaac ben Simson ha-Kohen, and through her mother, Vögele, granddaughter of the well-known rabbi of Prague, Löwe ben...
BACHARACH, JAIR ḤAYYIM – His Rabbinical Career. German rabbi; born at Leipnik, Moravia, 1639; died in Worms Jan. 1, 1702. At the age of twelve he came with his father, Samson, to Worms (1653), and two years later married Särlan, the daughter of Sussman...
BACHARACH, MICHAEL – Dayyan in Prague in the second half of the eighteenth century.Bibliography: Eisenstadt, Da'at Ḳedoshim, p. 224; Walden, Shem ha-Gedolim he-Ḥadash, i. 90; Löw, Gesammelte Schriften, ii. 263.L. G. I. Ber.
BACHARACH, MOSES SAMSON – Son of Samuel and Eva Bacharach; born in 1607; died at Worms April 19, 1670. After the death of his father his mother took him to Prague, where he was educated by his maternal uncle, Ḥayyim ha-Kohen. In 1627 he married Dobrusch,...
BACHER, EDUARD – Austrian jurisconsult and journalist; born at Pastelberg March 17, 1846. Graduating from the University of Vienna, he engaged in practise as an advocate, in which career he displayed such marked ability that some years later the...
BACHER, JULIUS – German playwright and novelist; born in Ragnit, eastern Prussia, Aug. 8, 1810. He studied medicine in Königsberg, and settled there as a physician in 1837; but after ten years he abandoned his medical career to devote himself...
BACHER, SIMON – Neo-Hebraic poet; born Feb. 1, 1823, in Liptó-Szent-Miklós, Hungary died at Budapest Nov. 9, 1891. Bacher, whose name was originally Bachrach, came of a family of scholars, and counted as one of his ancestors the well-known Jair...
BACHER, WILHELM – Hungarian scholar and Orientalist; son of the Hebrew writer Simon; born in Liptó-Szent-Miklós, Hungary, Jan. 12, 1850; he attended the Hebrew schools in Szucsán and in his native town, and passed through the higher classes of...
BACHI, RAPHAEL – Italian miniature-painter; lived at Paris in the middle of the eighteenth century. His name appears in the list of the Jews that resided in Paris during the reign of Louis XV., which was recently published by Paul d'Estrées....
BACHRACH, JACOB BEN MOSES – A noted apologist of rabbinical Judaism; born at Seiny, inthe government of Suwalki, Russia, May 9, 1824; died in Bielostok Dec. 29, 1896. He received his earliest instruction from his grandfather, Judah Bachrach. For years he...