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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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CAPERNAUM – Small town by the Lake of Gennesaret, mentioned in the Gospels as the home of Jesus, where he resided after his rejection by his Nazareth townsmen (Matt. iv. 13, viii. 5-17, ix. 1, xi. 23, xvii. 24; Mark i. 21; Luke vii. 1 et...
CAPESTANG – Village in the department of Hérault, near Béziers, France. Several official documents testify to the presence of many Jews there in the thirteenth century. Simon ben Meïr, in his work, "Milḥemet Miẓwah," relates that about 1245...
CAPHAR-SALAMA – See Kefar-Salama.
CAPHTOR – Original country of the Philistines before their emigration into Palestine, whence their name, "Caphtorim" (Deut. ii. 23; Amos ix. 7; Jer. xlvii. 4, where they are called "the remnant of the country [Hebrew, "island"] of...
CAPISTRANO, JOHN OF – Franciscan monk; born at Capistrano, Italy, 1386; died 1456. Owing to his remarkable power as a popular preacher, he was sent by Pope Nicholas V. (1447-55) as a legate to Germany, Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, with the special...
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT – In the Pentateuch: Warrants for the infliction of capital punishment, as opposed to private retribution or vengeance, are found in the Pentateuchal codes for the commission of any one of the following crimes: adultery (Lev. xx....
CAPITO (KÖPFEL), WOLFGANG FABRICIUS – German Hebrew scholar; born at Hagenau, Alsace, in 1478; died Nov., 1541. In 1515 he was appointed professor of theology at Basel; and eight years later provost of St. Thomas, Strasburg. He wrote a Hebrew grammar and various...
CAPPADOCIA – Ancient province of Asia Minor. It was known to the Jews in its Greek form also, and is often mentioned in the Talmud and the Midrash. The Roman province Cappadocia extended from the Taurus to the Euxine, and from the Halys to...
CAPPEL, LOUIS (LUDOVICUS CAPPELLUS) – Christian theologian and Hebrew scholar; descended from an old aristocratic French Hugue-not family; born Oct. 15, 1585; died June 18, 1658. In consequence of the so-called Tractate of Nemours of July 7, 1585, Cappel's parents...
CAPSALI – Family of scholars in European Turkey during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, which came originally from Greece, where a certain Elijah Capsali lived at the beginning of the fifteenth century. The name was taken from Cape...
CAPTAIN – One at the head of, and in command over, others; a chief or officer; the head man of a clan; the commander of an army. The title occurs both in A. V. and R. V. as the equivalent for a large variety of Hebrew and Greek words...
CAPTIVES – Biblical Data: The Bible makes no provision for the treatment of captives taken in war. Captives were considered as slaves, and as such were subject to all the laws that govern the relations between the master and his non-Jewish...
CAPTIVITY – By "exile" is meant any form of forced emigration in which the selection of his new habitation is left to the choice of the person banished. In a particular sense the word is used to designate the enforced emigration of larger...
CAPTIVITY, THE PRINCES OF – See Exilarch.
CAPUA, JOHN OF – See John of Capua.
CARABAJAL – The name of a family of Maranos in Mexico at the end of the sixteenth century and the beginning of the seventeenth, all connected with Don Luis de Carabajal, governor of New Leon. Several members of the family suffered martyrdom...
CARACALLA – Roman emperor (211-217); son of Septimius Severus. It is said that as a boy of seven he had a Jewish playfellow, and having heard that the latter had been cruelly whipped on account of his religion, he could not for a long time...
CARACAS – See South America.
CARASSO, DAVID SAMUEL – Jewish traveler; born at Salonica, Turkey. On the occasion of a business trip to Yemen, Arabia, in 1874, he studied the situation of the Jews of that region, and published an account of his travels in a volume written in...
CARAVAN – A convoy of travelers or merchandise. As the commerce of the Israelites was chiefly inland trade, products from regions that were not contiguous were exchanged by means of caravans ("orḥah"). The most important highways...
CARBEN, VICTOR OF – Jewish convert; lived at Cologne (1442-1515). Like most converts, Victor endeavored to show his zeal for his new religion by writing against his former coreligionists. When the Jews were banished from the diocese of Cologne...
CARCAS – One of the seven chamberlains serving Ahasuerus and ordered by him to bring Queen Vashti into the royal presence (Esth. i. 10). The Septuagint gives a different name—ΘαραΒὰ. The Targum allegorizes five of the names, but leaves...
CARCASS – Pollution from Carcass. —Biblical Data: The carcass of a clean animal that had not been properly slaughtered, or that of an unclean animal of the land, the water, or the air, polluted until the evening the person who touched it...
CARCASSONNE – Town in the department of Aude, France; the Carcaso or Carcassio of the Romans. It is variously transcribed in Hebrew as , etc.Under Roger II. Although the settlement of Jews at Carcassonne goes as far back as the early...
CARCASSONNE, ADOLPHE JOSEPH – French poet; born at Marseilles, 1826; died Sept. 22, 1891. His principal works are: (1) "Premières Lueurs," a selection of poems (1852); (2) "Le Jugement de Déea," opera in four acts (1860); (3) "La Fille du Franc-Juge," drama...