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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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CHINON, SIMSON OF – See Simson of Chinon.
CHIOS – Island in the Ægean Sea; Turkish possession, 344 miles west of Smyrna. It is not known with any certainty when the Jews first established themselves at Chios. According to the local legends reported by the traveler Joseph...
CHIQUITILLA – See Gikatilla.
CHISDAI – See Ḥasdai; Ḥisdai.
CHITTIM (KITTIM) – See Cyprus.
CHIUN – A word occurring in connection with "Siccuth" in Amos v. 26. Scholars have long been puzzled to know whether in this passage they are common nouns or proper names. "Siccuth" is probably the Assyrian "Sakkut" (Schrader, "K. A....
CHMIELNICKI, BOGDAN ZINOVI – Hetman of the Zaporogian Cossacks, born about 1595; died at Chigirin Aug. 16, 1675. Unlike many other Little-Russian pupils of the Jesuits, Chmielnicki did not embrace Roman Catholicism, but early in life became a champion of...
CHOBA – A town included among those which the Jews fortified against the attacks of Holofernes. It is mentioned in two places (Judith iv. 4; xv. 4, 5). Its connection with Jericho in Judith iv. 4 has induced Reland to look for it in the...
CHOIR – A collection of singers with trained voices who take part in divine service and who are separated from the congregation. The first choir mentioned in the Bible is the one organized by the Levites for the Temple service, to be...
CHOLERA ASIATICA – A specific and communicable disease, characterized by violent vomiting and purging. It prevails endemically in some parts of India, and from time to time is diffused epidemically throughout the world. The mortality is about 50...
CHOR-ASHAN – This is, perhaps, better given, with the earlier manuscripts (Baer), as "Bor-ashan." The Septuagint also confirms the latter spelling, although one reading gives "Beersheba." Chor-ashan (I Sam. xxx. 30) or Bor-ashan is probably...
CHORIN (CHORINER), AARON – Hungarian rabbi; born at Weisskirchen, Moravia, Aug. 3, 1766; died at Arad, Hungary, Aug 24, 1844. At the age of fourteen he studied in the yeshibah of Rabbi Jeremias in Mattersdorf, Hungary, and two years later at Prague in the...
CHORIN, FRANZ – Hungarian deputy; grandson of Aaron Chorin; born at Arad May 11, 1842. He studied law at Arad, Budapest, and Vienna, and began practise in his native city, where he soon became vice-president of the bar association. He was...
CHORNY, JOSEPH JUDAH – Russian traveler; born at Minsk April 20, 1835; died at Odessa April 28, 1880. His parents destined him for the wine-growing industry; but after having been graduated as a viticulturalist, he, owing to an indomitable passion for...
CHOSAMEUS – One of "the sons of Annas" that had "strange wives" (I Esd. ix. 32). The name can not be identified with any in the corresponding list of Ezra x. 32. It is, most probably, a combination of the last part of "Maluch" with the...
CHOSEN PEOPLE – Biblical Data: Name for the Jewish people expressive of the idea of their having been chosen by God to fulfil the mission of proclaiming His truth among all the nations. This choice does not imply a superior claim, but a...
CHOSROES (KHOSRU) II. PARWIZ – King of Persia from 591 to 628. Chosroes, on the plea of avenging the death of his father-in-law, the Byzantine emperor Maurice (Mauritius), who had been murdered by the usurper Phocas (602), invaded Asia Minor and Syria at the...
CHOTZNER, JOSEPH – English rabbi and author; born at Cracow, Austria, May 11, 1844; educated at the Breslau rabbinical seminary and the University of Breslau. After his ordination Chotzner became the first rabbi of the congregation at Belfast,...
CHOVEVEI ZION – Associations, in Europe and the United States, of persons interested in agricultural settlement of Jews in Palestine and in the connection of Jews with the future of the Holy Land.This movement, which was the predecessor of...
CHOYNSKI, JOSEPH – American heavyweight pugilist; born at San Francisco, Cal., Nov. 8, 1868. His first appearance in the prize-ring was in 1884, when he met and was defeated by J. J. Corbett in one round. He has encountered most of the prominent...
CHRIST – Septuagint translation of Hebrew "Mashiaḥ" ("Messiah"=The Anointed),applied by Christians exclusively to Jesus as the Messiah (see Jesus of Nazareth and Messiah).J.K.