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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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COZBI – A Midianitish woman, daughter of Zur, the leader of a tribe. She was put to death along with the Israelite Zimri by Phinehas (Num. xxv. 14-18).E. G. H. G. B. L.
CRACOW – Fifteenth Century. A city of Galicia, Austria, formerly the capital of the kingdom of Poland; founded about 700 C.E. There are no records of the early history of the Jewish community of Cracow, but it is probable that the Jews...
CRADLE SONGS, JUDÆO-GERMAN – Songs written as lullabies; these exist in great variety and profusion among the Jews speaking Judæo-German or Yiddish, and among them may be quoted the following:For boys:Inter Yankeles wigeleBehind Jankele's cradleShteit a...
CRAJOVA – Chief town of the district of Dolschi; ancient capital of the Banat of Oltenie, Lower Wallachia. It may be assumed that Jews settled here at a very early period, some, doubtless, under Ladislaus Basarab between 1365 and 1367,...
CRANE – A rendering, in the A. V., of the Hebrew word or , which in the R. V. is more correctly translated "swallow." "Crane," however, is the proper rendering in the R. V. of the word , as in Isa. xxxviii. 14 and Jer. viii. 7. The...
CRANIOMETRY – The methods of measuring skulls for the purpose of determining certain topographical relations, the most important measurement of the skull being the cranial index, or the cephalic index in case the measurements are taken on the...
CREATION – The bringing into existence of the world by the act of God. Most Jewish philosophers find in (Gen. i. 1) creation ex nihilo ( ). The etymological meaning of the verb , however, is "to cut out and put into shape," and thus...
CREATION, BOOK OF – See YeẒirah, Sefer.
CREATION, ERA OF – See Era.
CREATURE – A loose rendering in the A. V. of:1. "Nefesh" ("a breathing thing"; Gen. i. 20 et seq., ii. 19, ix. 10 et seq.; Lev. xi. 46).2. "Beri'ah" ("creation"; R. V. better, "a new thing"; Num. xvi. 30).3. "Ḥayyot" ("heavenly animals";...
CREED – See Articles of Faith.
CREEPING THINGS – A loose expression used in the A. V. as the equivalent of and . ("remes" = creeping—that is, without, or with imperceptible, feet; applies to terrestrial and also to water animals. The R. V. more correctly translates it...
CREFELD – See Krefeld.
CRÉHANGE, ALEXANDRE BEN BARUCH – French Hebraist; born at Etain, in the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, 1791; died in Paris Jan. 7, 1872. He acted as secretary to the Hebrew United Charities (Comité de Bienfaisance Israélite), and devoted himself to the...
CREIZENACH, MICHAEL – German educator and theologian; born in Mayence May 16, 1789; died in Frankfort-on-the-Main Aug. 5, 1842. Creizenach is one of the most typical representatives of the era of transition, following the epoch of Mendelssohn, whose...
CREIZENACH, THEODOR – German poet and historian of literature; son of Michael Creizenach; born April 17, 1818, in Mayence; died Dec. 6, 1877, at Frankfort-on-the-Main. He studied classical antiquities in Giessen, Göttingen, and Heidelberg, and then...
CREMATION – Biblical Data: The act of burning the dead. Cremation was not the prevailing custom among the ancient Hebrews, as it was among other contemporary nations (see J. Grimm, "Kleine Schriften," ii. 226). It was, however, not unknown...
CRÉMIEU – Town in the ancient province of Dauphiné, France. As early as the fifteenth century it had an important Jewish community. Raoul de Gaucourt, governor of Dauphiné, renewed in 1441 the privileges of the Jews of that town for seven...
CRÉMIEU-FOA, ANDRÉ – An officer in the French cavalry; born in Paris Jan. 20, 1857; died at Porto Novo, North Africa, Nov., 1892. Crémieu-Foa early embraced the military career. The "Libre Parole," the organ of the anti-Semitic party, published in...
CRÉMIEUX (COLONY) – See Agricultural Colonies in the United States.
CRÉMIEUX, GASTON – French socialist and writer; born at Nîmes June 22, 1836; died at Marseilles Dec. 1, 1871. He entered upon an active career as attorney and counselor at law at Aix in 1856, after having taken all the honors at the lyceum of...