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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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CROATIA – Earliest Mention. Southwestern part of the Hungarian crown provinces; consists of Croatia, Slavonia, and the Military Frontier, included since 1868. The earliest allusion to Jews in Croatia is found in a letter of the Spanish...
CROCODILE – This well-known amphibious reptile (Crocodilus vulgaris or niloticus) is not mentioned by a specific Hebrew name in the Bible. There are passages, however, in which allusions to it occur, and which give a faithful description of...
CROMWELL, OLIVER – Silver Salver Bearing the "Arms of the Tribe of Judah."Said to have been presented to Oliver Cromwell by Manasseh ben Israel.(In possession of Sir Samuel Montagu.) Petition of the Jews of England to Olivfr Cromwell, Dated March...
CRONEBURG, BENJAMIN BEN SOLOMON – German publicist; lived at Neuwied, Prussia, in the eighteenth century. In 1758 he founded at Neuwied the Jewish periodical "Der Grosse Schauplatz" (The Great Stage), printed in German.Bibliography: Karpeles, Gesch. der...
CRONICA ISRAELITICA – See Periodicals.
CROOL, JOSEPH – Teacher and controversialist; flourished in England about 1838. He gave lessons in Hebrew to a few students in the University of Cambridge when, for several years, the regius professors of Hebrew were absentees. He was not by...
CROSS – 1. The stake (σταῦρος = or ) used by the Romans at crucifixion. This was so familiar to the Jews in New Testament times that they spoke frequently of "men carrying their cross before them while going to be executed" (Gen. R....
CROSS-EXAMINATION – See Evidence.
CROWN – Biblical Data: The translation employed for five distinct Hebrew words in the Bible. It renders, first, "zer," a technical term used frequently in the Priestly portions of Exodus for the golden molding with which the Ark (xxv....
CROWN OF THE LAW – A coronet, usually made of gilded silver, with bells, bearing the Hebrew inscription . It is placed upon the upper ends of the handles of the scroll of the Law. Sometimes the crown is a double one. A similar emblem, often borne...
CROWNS OF THE RIGHTEOUS – The future bliss of the righteous is described by Rab in Ber. 17b: "There is neither eating and drinking nor marrying nor bargaining nor envy nor hatred nor quarrel in the world to come; but the righteous sit with crowns upon...
CRUCEANU, STEFAN – Rumanian author; born at Jassy April 25, 1868. On receiving his bachelor's degree in 1889 he entered the University of Jassy as a student of philosophy, but at the endof a year he went to Paris to study medicine. In April, 1885,...
CRUCIFIXION – The act of putting to death by nailing or binding to a cross. Among the modes of Capital Punishment known to the Jewish penal law, crucifixion is not found; the "hanging" of criminals "on a tree," mentioned in Deut. xxi. 22, was...
CRUELTY – The disposition to inflict pain and to gloat over suffering. Widely prevalent among, if not characteristic of, savages and barbarians, it has influenced their treatment of strangers, enemies, and evildoers. Primitive races,...
CRUELTY TO ANIMALS – The Bible contains no comprehensive principle regarding the rightsof animals. In the Biblical account of creation man is made sole ruler over the lower creatures, with the right to use them for whatever purpose he desires (Gen....
CRUSADES, THE – First Crusade: 1096. Expeditions from western Europe to recover Jerusalem and the holy sepulcher from the control of the infidel. The undisciplined mobs accompanying the first three Crusades attacked the Jews in Germany, France,...
CRYPTO-JEWS – Jews professing another religion but practising Jewish rites in secret in their own homes. There was some tendency toward this even in early days, as is shown by the attempts of certain Jews to avoid being taken for such (see...
CRYSTAL – See Glass.
CSEMEGI, KARL – President of the Hungarian Supreme Court of Judicature; born in Csongrad May 3, 1826; died March 18, 1899. Csemegi received his early education in the schools of Szegedin and Budapest. By order of Count Elemer Batthyanyi he...
CSILLAG, ROSA – Hungarian opera-singer; born about 1840. She attracted much attention in the chorus of the Hungarian National Theater at Budapest. Trained by Professor Proch, she made her first appearance in 1858 as Fides in Meyerbeer's "Le...
CSILLAG, THERESE – Hungarian actress; born at Duna-Adony May 17, 1862. For many years she was a popular comedienne at the National Theater in Budapest. At the age of thirteen she attended the dramatic school in that city. In 1879 she was engaged...
CUBA – An island in the Atlantic Ocean, the largest of the West Indian groups. The relations of the Jews with the island of Cuba date from the discovery of the island by Columbus in 1492, several Jews having accompanied him on his...
CUBIT – See Weights and Measures.
CUCKOO – The A. V. rendering of (shaḥaf) in Lev. xi. 16 and Deut. xiv. 15. In both places it occurs in the list of unclean birds. This identification, however, is only a conjecture, and there is no certain tradition to support it. The...
CUCUMBER – The rendering of the Hebrew (Num. xi. 5). There are at least two kinds of cucumbers in Palestine (Hasselquist, Groser, Post, etc.); viz., Cucumis sativus and C. chate. The former is the common green cucumber well known in the...