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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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ETOILE – Town in the ancient province of Dauphineá, France. It must not be confounded with Estella (Latin, Stella), Spain. In the fourteenth century there were living in Dijon Jews who had originally come from "Estoile" (Simmonet, "Juifs...
ETROG – The citron (κίτρον, κίτριον); fruit of a tree of the orange and lemon family. It is oblong in shape, and sometimes as much as six inches in length. The skin is thick, somewhat hard, fragrant, and covered with protuberances; the...
ETTHAUSEN, ISAAC SECKEL BEN MENAHEM – German rabbi; flourished in the first half of the eighteenth century, officiating as rabbi in various German towns during a period of fifty-five years. He was the author of "Or Ne'elam," a collection of fifty-eight responsa...
ETTING – Name of an American family, prominent in national and civic affairs, whose history is associated with the states of Maryland and Pennsylvania, chiefly with the cities of Baltimore and Philadelphia, though some of its members are...
ETTINGER (OETTINGER) – Family name derived from the city of Oettingen in Bavaria, and found all over Europe among Ashkenazim families. The Galician and Russian family of Ettingers contains many rabbis and writers of some distinction. The best-known...
ETTLINGER, JACOB – German rabbi and author, and one of the leaders of modern Orthodoxy; born at Carlsruhe March 17, 1798; died at Altona Dec. 7, 1871. He received his early education from his father Aaron, who was "Klausrabbiner" at Carlsruhe,...
EUCHEL, ISAAC ABRAHAM – Hebrew author; born at Copenhagen 1758; died at Berlin (June?) 14, 1804. He studied at the University of Königsberg under Immanuel Kant, and acquired a fine Hebrew style from Moses Mendelssohn and Naphtali Wessely. A proposal to...
EUCLID – Greek geometer; flourished in the fourth century B.C. He is mentioned, perhaps for the first time in Hebrew literature, by Rabbi Abraham bar Ḥiyya (d. 1136). Jacob ben Nissim also speaks of .The "Elements." Most of the oldest...
EULENBURG, ALBERT – German neuropathist and electrotherapist; born Aug. 10, 1840, in Berlin; son of the physician Moritz Michael Eulenburg (1811-87). He received his education at the gymnasium of Berlin and the universities at Bonn, Zurich, and...
EULOGY – See Invocations.
EUNUCH – Biblical Data: As throughout the Orient in very ancient times, and more especially in Egypt and Assyria, where they seem to have held the most important offices, there were eunuchs in the kingdom of Israel. The reference to them...
EUPATORIA – Town in the government of Taurida; on the western coast of the Crimea. It was formerly called by the Tatars "Gezelew" (in Hebrew ), pronounced "Kozlow" by the Russians; but on its annexation to Russia in 1784 it received its...
EUPHEMISM – A figure of speech by which a softened, indirect expression is substituted for a word or phrase offensive to delicate ears though more accurately expressive of what is meant. Instances of euphemisms are found in the Bible; and...
EUPHRATES – The main river of nearer Asia, often mentioned in the Bible (the fourth river of paradise, Gen. ii. 14), and frequently designated as "ha-nahar" (the river). It is formed by the union of two branches, the Kur (the western...
EUPOLEMUS – Son of John, son of Accos; envoy of Judas Maccabeus to the Romans. To secure himself against the Syrians Judas sent Eupolemus with Jason, son of Eleazar, to win the Romans as friends and allies. The Romans granted his request,...
EUROPE – I Early Period (163 B. C. to 500 C.E.): The first settlements of Jews in Europe are obscure. There is documentary evidence only for the fact that in 163 B.C. Eupolemus, son of John, and Jason, son of Eleazar, went to Rome as...
EURYDEMUS BEN JOSE – One of the sons of Tanna Jose b. Ḥalafta. His name has been transmitted in the most varying forms: "Awradimus" ( ), "Abirodimus" ( ) "Abdimus" ( ), and "Wradimus" ( ). As a basic form Bacher assumes "Eurydemus" (compare the...
EUSEBIUS – Bishop of Cæsarea and the "father of Church history"; born about 270. Though animated by zeal for the conversion of the Jews, he often gives evidence of his bitter dislike of them. In his "Demonstratio Evangelica," which is a...
EUTOLEMUS – Name borne by a number of Palestinian Jews. R. Jose quotes in reference to several halakic questions the testimony of a certain "Eutolemus," who gave a decision in the name of five elders (R. H. 15a; Suk. 40a; 'Er. 35a), and...
EVANS, SAMUEL – English pugilist; born in London Jan. 30, 1801; died of consumption Nov. 4, 1843. Evans' first encounter in the prize-ring took place at Knowle Hill, Maidenhead, Berkshire, July 5, 1825, when he beat Ned Stockman in seventeen...
EVANSVILLE – See Indiana.
EVARISTUS – The fifth pope; consecrated about 100; died about 109. The breviary of Pope Pius V. reserves Oct. 26 to the memory of "Evaristus Græcus ex Judæo parte Trajano Imperatore Pontificatum gessit." From this it would follow that this...
EVE – Biblical Data: The wife of Adam. According to Gen. iii. 20, Eve was so called because she was "the mother of all living" (R. V., margin, "Life" or "Living"). On the ground that it was not "good for man to be alone" God resolved...
EVE OF HOLIDAYS – Unlike the early Babylonians, whose day began with sunrise, the Jews began theirs with sunset. Some critics, Dillmann among them, attempted to find traces of the Babylonian reckoning in the early portions of the Bible, but there...
EVICTION – See Ejectment.