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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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FUNERAL RITES – Ceremonies attending the burial of the dead. After the body had been cleansed ("ṭohorah") and placed on the bier (see Burial), the funeral procession began, with the accompaniment of trumpets (Ket. 17a; M. Ḳ. 27b), and of dirges...
FUNES – Town in Navarre, in the district of Olite; received a fuero (charter) in 1120, containing several clauses in restraint of the Jews there. In case of a bill amounting to more than five solidos, the Jew had to take an oath on a...
FÜNFKIRCHEN – See Pacs.
FURNACE – Three kinds of structures or apparatus for baking, smelting, etc., were known to the ancient Hebrews: (1) the oven for baking bread; (2) the potters' kiln for firing earthen vessels; and (3) the furnace for smelting metals and...
FURNITURE, HOUSEHOLD – Biblical Data: In the East the house is not as important as in northern countries, since the climate permits an outdoor life in the widest sense of the term. The house is used chiefly as a shelter for the night and for sleeping,...
FÜRST, ALEXANDER – German physician; born at Braunsberg April 15, 1844; died in Berlin May 25, 1898. He studied medicine at Königsberg, and took his degree at Berlin (1867). An assistant first in a private hospital at Schöneberg, near Berlin, and...
FÜRST, JULIUS – German rabbi; born at Mannheim Nov. 14, 1826; died there Sept. 5, 1899. He received his secular education at the University of Heidelberg, and became rabbi at Endingen (1854), at Merchingen (1857), and district rabbi at Bayreuth...
FÜRST, JULIUS – German Hebraist and Orientalist; born May 12, 1805, at Zerkowo, Prussia, where his father, Jacob, was darshan; died at Leipsic Feb. 9, 1873. Fürst studied at Berlin (where Hegel and Neander were among his teachers), Breslau, and...
FÜRST, LIVIUS – German physician; born at Leipsic, May 27, 1840; son of the Orientalist Julius Fürst. Livius Fürst studied at the universities of Jena and Leipsic, graduating as doctor of medicine in 1864. After a postgraduate course at the...
FÜRSTENFELD – Town in Styria, Austria. Jews began to settle there in 1278, Rudolph of Habsburg having granted (1277) to its inhabitants the usual franchises and rights of trade, and confirmed to the Jews the letter of privileges granted them...
FÜRSTENTHAL, JACOB RAPHAEL – As Translator. German poet, translator, and Hebrew writer; born in Glogau 1781; died at Breslau Feb. 16, 1855. Fürstenthal's attention was directed chiefly toward the modernization of Jewish religious services, both in and out...
FÜRSTENTHAL, JOHANN AUGUST L. – German jurisconsult of the first half of the nineteenth century; a brother of Jacob Raphael Fürstenthal. He embraced Christianity. He was the author of numerous works and monographs on Roman and commercial law, and jurisprudence...
FURTADO, ABRAHAM – French politician; born at London 1756; died at Bordeaux Jan. 29, 1816. His parents were members of a Portuguese Marano family, and resided first in Lisbon. During the earthquake which destroyed that city in 1755 his father was...
FURTADO, AUGUSTE – French banker; born at St. Esprit April 11, 1797; died at Bayonne May 20, 1883. He was a descendant of a Portuguese family, and a nephew of Abraham Furtado, president of Napoleon's Assembly of Jewish Notables. From 1831 to 1871,...
FURTADOHEINE, CÉCILE CHARLOTTE – French philanthropist; born at Paris 1821; died at Rocquencourt (Seine-et-Oise) 1896. Her ancestors on both sides were prominent in French politics. She married Charles Heine, the cousin of the poet, and at her husband's death...
FÜRTH – Early Settlements. City of Bavaria, Germany. On April 17, 1528, George the Pious, Margrave of Ansbach, permitted two Jews, Perman and Uriel Wolff, to settle under his protection at Fürth, which was in his territory; and in 1553...
FÜRTH, MEYER B. ELHANAN – German writer and teacher, who belonged only in a restricted sense to the school of the Meassefim, for he was a conservative and wrote against Reform and reformers. He annotated a mathematical work by Abraham Joseph Mentz...