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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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GO'EL – Next of kin, and, hence, redeemer. Owing to the solidarity of the family and the clan in ancient Israel, any duty which a man could not perform by himself had to be taken up by his next of kin. Any rights possessed by a man...
GOG AND MAGOG – Biblical Data: Magog is mentioned (Gen. x. 2; I Chron. i. 5) as the second son of Japheth, between Gomer and Madai. Gomer representing the Cimmerians and Madai the Medes, Magog must be a people located east of the Cimmerians and...
GOITEIN, BARUCH (BENEDIT) – Hungarian rabbi; died at Hö;gyész, Hungary, Nov. 16, 1842. He occupied the rabbinate of Högyész for many years, and wrote a work on Talmudic methodology under the title of "Kesef Nibḥar" (Prague, 1827-28, and republished several...
GOLD – One of the precious metals. There are six Hebrew words which denote "gold," four of which occur in Job (xxviii. 15-17): (1) , the most common term, used on account of the yellow color; it is generally accompanied by epithets, as...
GOLDBAUM, WILHELM – German writer and journalist; born at Kempen, Posen, Jan. 6, 1843. After studying law for some time at the University of Breslau, he became editor of the "Posener Zeitung." He lives at present (1903) at Vienna, and since 1872...
GOLDBERG, ALBERT – German opera-singer; born at Brunswick June 8, 1847. Educated at the Conservatorium of Leipsic (1865-69), he made his début at the court theater at Munich, and played, between 1869 and 1883, successively in Mayence, Bremen,...
GOLDBERG, BAER BEN ALEXANDER – Russian scholar; born at Soludna near Warsaw in 1799; died at Paris May 4, 1884. When he was scarcely fifteen years of age his parents contracted a marriage for him, and at eighteen he had to provide for the wants of a family....
GOLDBERGER, SIGISMUND – Austrian jurist; born in Jägerndorf, Austrian Silesia, June 15, 1854. He was educated at the gymnasium of Troppau and at the University of Vienna. He began the practise of law in Vienna in 1887. He has written: "Oesterreichische...
GOLDBLATT, JACOB SEMENOVICH – Russian painter; born at Suwalki 1860; studied at the St. Petersburg Academy of Fine Arts from 1878 to 1888, gaining many prizes, among them the small gold medal for "Priam Imploring Achilles," and the large gold medal for "The...
GOLDEN CALF – See Calf, Golden.
GOLDEN RULE, THE – By this name is designated the saying of Jesus (Matt. vii. 12): "All things therefore whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, even so do ye also unto them." In James ii. 8 it is called "the royal law." It has been held...
GOLDENBERG, JOHN – Russian merchant; born on the confines of Russia and Rumania; died 1895. He followed the army in the Crimea (1856-57) as a sutler, and there acquired wealth, which he afterward greatly increased in Burma. He had settled in...
GOLDENBERG, SAMUEL LÖB – Austrian Hebraist; born at Bolechow, Galicia, 1807; died at Tarnopol Jan. 11, 1846. He was the founder and editor of the Hebrew periodical "Kerem Ḥemed" (vols. i. and ii., Vienna, 1833 and 1836; vols. iii.-vii., Prague,...
GOLDENTHAL, JACOB – Austrian Orientalist; born at Brody, Galicia, April 16, 1815; died at Vienna Dec. 28, 1868; educated at the University of Leipsic. In June, 1843, he became principal of the Jewish school at Kishinef, Bessarabia, and held the...
GOLDFADEN, ABRAHAM B. ḤAYYIM LIPPE – Hebrew and Yiddish poet and founder of the Yiddish drama; born at Starokonstantinov, Russia, July 12, 1840. He graduated from the rabbinical school of Jitomir in 1866. For nine years he taught in government schools, first at...
GOLDFOGLE, HENRY MAYER – American lawyer and politician; born in New York city May 23, 1856; educated in the public schools and at Townsend College; admitted to the bar 1877. Goldfogle was elected judge of the municipal court, New York city, 1888, and...
GOLDMAN, BERNARD – Austrian deputy; born at Warsaw Feb. 20, 1842; died at Lemberg March 23, 1901. His father, Isaac Goldman, was the owner of a Hebrew printing establishment. Bernard attended the rabbinical school in Warsaw under the direction of...
GOLDMANN, EDWIN ELLEN – German physician; born at Burghersdorp, Cape Colony, Nov. 12, 1862; studied medicine at the universities of Breslau, Freiburg, and London, graduating (M.D.) in 1888. After having been for half a year assistant at Weigert's...
GOLDMARK, KARL – Hungarian violinist, pianist, and operatic composer; born at Keszthely, Hungary, May 18, 1830, where his father, Ruben Goldmark, was cantor in the synagogue. Karl received a rudimentary musical education from a schoolmaster in...
GOLDSCHMIDT, ADOLPH – German art critic; born at Hamburg Jan. 15, 1863. After a short business career he devoted himself (1885) to the study of the history of art at the universities of Jena, Kiel, and Leipsic. He took his degree in 1889 with the...
GOLDSCHMIDT, HENRIETTE – Wife of Rabbi A. M. Goldschmidt (m. 1855); born at Krotoschin, Prussia, Nov. 23, 1825; and now (1903) resident at Leipsic. She was one of the pioneers of the movement for the emancipation of women in Germany. In 1866 she entered...
GOLDSCHMIDT, HERMANN – German painter and astronomer; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main June 17, 1802; died at Fontainebleau Sept. 10, 1866. Destined originally for a commercial career, he spent a dozen years in his father's warehouse, devoting, however,...
GOLDSCHMIDT, HERMANN (Herman Taber) – German novelist and playwright; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main July 18, 1860. He attendedthe local gymnasium, and studied law at the universities of Heidelberg, Leipsic, and Marburg. He was first referendar and then (in 1888)...
GOLDSCHMIDT, JULIUS – German physician; born at Mayence Feb. 12, 1843. He studied at the universities of Würzburg and Giessen, receiving from the latter his degree as doctor of medicine in 1866. Accompanying in the same year a patient to Madeira, he...
GOLDSCHMIDT, LAZARUS – German writer; born at Plungiany, Lithuania, Russia, Dec. 17, 1871. He received his rabbinical education at the Talmudic school in Slobodki, near Kovno. In 1888 he went to Germany, and in 1890 entered the Berlin University,...