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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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GOURD – See Botany.
GOVERNMENT – Biblical Data: The only kind of political institution extant among the Israelites before the time of the Kings was the division into tribes, according to tradition twelve in number corresponding to the sons of Jacob, who were...
GOVERNORS, ROMAN, OF JUDEA – See Procurators.
GOY – See Gentile.
GRACE, DIVINE – One of the attributes of God, signifying His loving-kindness and mercy, and particularly His compassion for the weak, the unfortunate, and the sinful. It is in contrast with the attribute of justice, inasmuch as grace is granted...
GRACE AT MEALS – Benedictions before and after meals. In the prayer-book of the Spanish Jews grace after meals is called "bendicion de la mesa" (benediction of the table); the German Jews speak of "benschen," a corruption of the Latin...
GRACIA MENDESIA NASI – See Nasi, Gracia Mendesia.
GRACIAN – A prominent Spanish Jewish family descended from Judah ben Barzilai, the members of which, are known to have lived chiefly at Barcelona from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century. Most of the members used the name "Ḥen"; one...
GRACIAN, SHEALTIEL (ḤEN) – Rabbi of Barcelona; flourished in the beginning of the thirteenth century. During the lifetime of R. Nissim Gerondi, Shealtiel Gracian was rabbi of Fraga, Spain. Owing to his great learning, he was nominated rabbi at Alcala, and...
GRACIAN, SOLOMON BEN MOSES (ḤEN) – Talmudist of Barcelona; lived at the end of the thirteenth and beginning of the fourteenth centuries; died in 1307. He was one of the synod that signed with R. Solomon b. Adret the decree of excommunication against Maimonides'...
GRACIAN, ZERAHIAH BEN ISAAC BEN SHEALTIEL (ḤEN) – Physician, philosopher, translator, Hebraist; flourished about the end of the thirteenth century; born either at Barcelona or at Toledo. Confounded with Zerahiah b. Isaac ha-Levi Saladin, a translator. Zerahiah went to Rome...
GRADIS – Name of a family of prominent merchants in southern France, originally from Spain; flourished in Bordeaux in the eighteenth century. The following family tree indicates the relationship of the members of the great Bordeaux firm:...
GRAES, ORTUIN DE – Anti-Jewish writer of the sixteenth century; born at Holtwick in Westphalia in 1491; died at Cologne May 21, 1542. He was the son of a priest, and became one of the chiefs of the Dominican party in Cologne. Ortuin was a rabid...
GRAETZ, HEINRICH (HIRSCH) – German historian and exegete; born Oct. 31, 1817, at Xions, province of Posen; died at Munich Sept. 7, 1891. He received his first instruction at Zerkov, whither his parents had removed, and in 1831 was sent to Wollstein, where...
GRAETZ, LEO – German physicist; son of Heinrich Graetz; born at Breslau Sept. 26, 1856. Graduating from the Elizabeth gymnasium at Breslau in 1875, he studied physics and mathematics at Breslau, Berlin, and Strasburg, taking his degree (Ph....
GRAISIVAUDAN – See Dauphiné.
GRAMMAR, HEBREW – Although Hebrew grammar, together with Hebrew lexicography—the two constituting Hebrew philology, and aiming at the systematic investigation and presentation of Biblical Hebrew—originated as an auxiliary science to Bible...
GRANADA – Capital of the Spanish province of the same name. It is said to have been inhabited by Jews from the earliest times; hence it was also called "Villa de Judios" (City of Jews), and, like Cordova, it was entrusted by the Arabian...
GRANTOR AND GRANTEE – See Gifts.
GRAPE – The fruit of the grape-vine. The general Hebrew term for ripe grapes when not in clusters is (Gen. xl. 10-11), and of grapes in clusters, (Num. xiii. 23). There are other terms for different kinds of grapes and for grapes in...
GRASSHOPPER – See Locust.
GRÄTZ – Town in the province of Posen, Prussia, with a population of 3,784, of whom 319 are Jews (1903). The Jewish community there is one of the oldest in the province. Jews are mentioned in the city charter of April 9, 1594. In 1634...
GRATZ – American family prominent in the affairs of the city of Philadelphia and of the state of Pennsylvania. According to some authorities, the name "Gratz" is derived from a town in Styria, Austria; according to others, from a city...
GRATZ COLLEGE (Philadelphia) – Jewish institution of higher learning, founded under a deed of trust executed by Hyman Gratz, dated December, 1856, which, under certain contingencies that afterward arose, became vested in the Congregation Mickveh Israel of...
GRÄTZER, JONAS – German physician; born at Tost, Upper Silesia, Oct. 19, 1806; died at Breslau Nov. 25, 1889. He graduated (M.D.) from the University of Breslau in 1832. The following year he settled as a physician in Breslau, where he practised...