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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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RUFUS ANNIUS – See Annius Rufus.
RUFUS, TINEIUS – Governor of Judea in the first century of the common era. Jerome, on Zech. viii. 16, has "T. Annius Rufus," and the editor, Vallarsi, conjectures that the full prænomen is "Tyrannius," a name which would correspond to the of...
RÜHS, CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH – German historian and anti-Jewish writer; born at Greifswald March 1, 1781; died at Florence Feb. 1, 1820. As professor of history at the universities of Greifswald, Göttingen (1801-9), and Berlin (1810-1820), and as...
RULE, GOLDEN – See Golden Rule.
RULES OF ELIEZER B. JOSE HA-GELILI, THE THIRTY-TWO – Rules laid down by R. Eliezer b. Jose ha-Gelili for haggadic exegesis, many of them being applied also to halakic interpretation.1. Ribbuy (extension): The particles 'et," "gam," and "af," which are superfluous, indicate that...
RULES OF HILLEL, THE SEVEN – Rules given to the sons of Bathyra by Hillel I. as the chief guides for the interpretation of the Scriptures and for the deduction of laws from them (Tosef., Sanh. vii.; the introduction to the Sifra, ed. Weiss, p. 3a, end; Ab....
RULES OF R. ISHMAEL, THE THIRTEEN – Thirteen rules compiled by Rabbi Ishmael b. Elisha for the elucidation of the Torah and for making halakic deductions from it. They are, strictly speaking, mere amplifications of the seven Rules of Hillel, and are collected in...
RÜLF, ISAAC – German rabbi and author; born Feb. 10, 1834, in Holzhausen, near Marburg in Hessen; died at Bonn Sept. 19, 1902. He was educated at the universities of Marburg and Rostock (Ph.D. 1865). When thirty-one years old he accepted a...
RUMANIA – Invasion of the Chazars. Kingdom of southern Europe. If the assertions of Rumanian historians are to be accepted, Jews lived in Rumania for a considerable time before the advent of the hordes of Roman convicts brought by Emperor...
RUMSCH, ISAAC MOSES – Russian teacher and Hebrew author; born in the village of Zezemer, government of Wilna, April 6, 1822; died in 1894. At the age of nine he went to Wilna, where he studied the Talmud in the yeshibah of his brother Joseph Rumsch,...
RUNKEL, SOLOMON ZALMAN – Rabbi of Mayence and afterward of Worms; died before 1426. Runkel was a cabalist, as is shown by his work "Ḥatan Damim" (Prague, 1605), which contains a cabalistic commentary on the Pentateuch according to gemaṭria and...
RUSSELL, HENRY – English composer and singer; born at Sheerness Dec. 24, 1812; died in London Dec. 7; 1900. He appeared in infancy in Christmas pantomimes, and later learned singing from Bellini in Italy in 1825, and counterpoint from Donizetti....
RUSSIA – History: [Much of the history of the Jews of Russia having already appeared under the headings Alexander, Armenia, Caucasus, Cossacks, etc., the present article has been framed so as to include only those facts which are...
RUSSKI YEVREI – See Periodicals.
RUSTCHUK – City of Bulgaria, on the southern bank of the Danube. It was founded by the Russians in 968, was occupied in turn by the Greeks and the Bulgarians, and was finally captured by the Turks under Bayazid I. in 1389. Jews are known...
RUSTICANUS – See Berthold of Regensburg.
RUTH, BOOK OF – The Book of Ruth, which is poetically idyllic in character, although the narrative is in the form of prose, contains an episode from the period of the Judges. For this reason it is placed in the Septuagint after the Book of...
RUTH RABBAH – A haggadic and homiletic interpretation of the Book of Ruth, which, like that of the four other scrolls ("megillot"), is included in the Midrash Rabbot. This midrash, divided into eight chapters or sections ("parashiyyot"),...
RYSSEL, CARL VICTOR – German Protestant theologian; born at Reinsberg, Saxony, Dec. 18, 1849; died at Zurich. March 2, 1905. Having completed his theological and Oriental studies, he commenced his academic career at the Leipsic University in 1878 and...