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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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NARD – ...root; and it formed, under the name of "spica nardi" or "nardus Indica" the chief component of spikenard oil and ointment.In the Bible it occurs only in Cant. i. 12; iv. 13, 14. The nard does not grow in...
NATHAN BEN JOSEPH 'OFFICIAL – ...how do you then interpret this passage? Tell me, for the sake of friendship."No writings of Nathan are extant, but his commentaries on detached verses of the Bible are quoted in the Tosafot to Ta'anit, and...
NEGEB – ...Cheyne and Black, Encyc. Bibl.; Hastings, Dict. Bible.
MENDES – ...Kohler, he is one of the revisers of the "New Bible Translation" in course of publication by the Jewish Publication Society. He has also translated "Jewish Family Papers: Letters of a Missionary," by "Gustav ...Meinhardt" (Dr. William Herzberg). Of his publications the following may be mentioned: "Child's First Bible"; "Outlines of Bible History"; "Defense not Defiance." He contributed also the article on the "Jews" to ...Ahead," a plea for justice to the Jew (1900); "The Jewish Religion Ethically Presented" (1904). Among his other writings are: "In Old Egypt," stories about, but not from, the Bible; "Esther"; "Judas Maccabæus"; and...
MESHWI AL-'UKBARI – ...Karaites and the Rabbinites. Because the Day of Atonement is termed in the Bible "Sabbath of Sabbaths" he affirmed that that feast must always occur on a Sabbath, which would make the Feast of Passover fall on...
MESSING – ...the Haggadah; and "Arono shel Yosef" (1876) on Bible exegesis.Three sons of Joseph Messing, who received their training under Guttmacher at Grätz, and Öttinger and Zunz at Berlin, were called to fill...
SHEMANA (SEMANA) – ...mentioned Nissim Shemana, and, like him, alcaide and tax-collector. He published: "Sefer Shoresh Yishai" (Leghorn, 1809), notes to passages of the Bible and the Talmud, together with some Hebrew poems; and "Mo'ade...
SHIBBOLETH – ...Word occurring in different passages of the Bible, sometimes in the singular form, sometimes in the plural, , and once in the status constructus,
SONG OF SONGS, THE – ...that toward the end of the first Christian century the canonical authority of the Song was disputed in certain quarters (bible-canon">see Bible Canon, § 11). Probably the ground of ...des Mittelalters, 1879; W. Riegel, Die Auslegung des Hohenliedes in der Jüdischen Gemeinde und der Griechischen Kirche, 1898; E. Reuss, La Bible ...Songs, in Hastings' Dict. Bible; Driver, Introduction (which gives a full outline of the schemes of Delitzsch and Ewald); Wetzstein, in Budde, The...
STRACK, HERMANN LEBERECHT – ...the Bible manuscripts there; on this occasion he examined also the antiquities of the Firkovich collection, which he declared to be forgeries...
TERQUEM, OLRY – ...also several treatises to the French Bible translation by S. Cahen, and a great number of articles to the "Archives Israélites."Bibliography:
    TODROS OF BEAUCAIRE – ...as allegories events recorded in the first five books of the Bible. Like Abba Mari, he did not hesitate to disregard the opposition of Jacob ben Machir, and to read publicly in the synagogue of Montpellier the...
URI PHOEBUS BEN AARON HA-LEVI – ...with the commentary "Sifte Kohen" of Shabbethai ha-Kohen (1663), and a Judæo-German translation of the Bible by Jekuthiel Blitz, who worked as a corrector in Phoebus' printing-house. In 1693 Phoebus opened a...
USISHKIN, MICHAEL – ...One of the leaders of the Russian Zionists; born in 1863 in Dubrovna, government of Moghilef (Mohilev). In 1871 he went with his parents to Moscow. He studied the Bible and Talmud in the ḥeder till he was...
WEISSMANN, ASHER (ARTHUR) SIMḤAH – ...Jewish sects prior to the death of Simeon the Just. He was the author also of "Ḳonṭres 'al Debar Serefat ha-Metim" (Lemberg, 1878), a critical essay on cremation according to the Bible and Talmud, and "Ḳedushshat ha...
ANTHROPOMORPHISM – ...seq.It is evident, therefore, that the theological problem regarding Anthropomorphism—that is, the endeavor to interpret the sensuous statements concerning God in the Bible so as to give them a ...contradistinction to the other appellations of the Deity in the Bible, was thereafter avoided (see Adonai).Men of the Great Synagogue. A ...contact with the merely human, and thus to avoid attributing human qualities to God even in interpreting the language of the Bible. Nevertheless, Anthropomorphism and even Anthropopathism, when not too gross and...
MANUSCRIPTS – ...different forms in the Bible, and is to be supplied in many places, as, for instance, with "Torah," designates the skin of an animal, the writing material anciently employed by the Orientals, and not papyrus. The usual ...word for writing, "katab," the fundamental meaning of which is "to place signs in succession," is found in the Bible 220 times (Blau, "Studien zum Althebräischen Buchwesen," pp. 9 et seq.). For private ...membrane); doksosṭos is another form of parchment (ib. pp. 22 et seq.).Parchment. Copies of the Bible were, as a rule, made from whole skins, as at...
ADELKIND – ...Adelkind's aid, texts of the Bible entire and in part, commentaries on the Bible, and prayer-books according to the German, Spanish, and Karaite rites. In 1544 he worked for another Venetian publisher, Giovanni di Gara...
BARAITA OF THE FORTY-NINE RULES – ...cited by the old scholars under that name: for the citations leave no doubt that the Baraita, even in its mathematical parts, was founded on the Bible; whereas the "Mishnat ha-Middot" is a purely secular work, and ...references to the Bible for special points, is of no weight, since it is absolutely incomprehensible that haggadic or halakic matter should fit into the frame of the work as it now is.The same reason demolishes...
BEER, BERNHARD – ...the discussion of the Bible and other Hebrew literature, and, above all, the works of the exegetes and philosophers of the Middle Ages.
ALLEGORY IN THE OLD TESTAMENT – ...Gerber, Die Sprache als Kunst, 2d ed., ii. 92, 100, 105, 113, 449, 452, 474, 482-485; E. W. Bullinger, Figures of Speech Used in the Bible, pp. 748-754, London, 1898;
  • C. G. Monteflore, A Tentative Catalogue of Bible Metaphors, in Jew. Quart. Rev. iii. 623 et seq.I. M.
  • BA'AL – ...Hebrew word for possessor or owner of an object. In connection with many nouns, it expresses some relation between the person and an object. Many of these combinations are found in Bible phraseology, and ...especially used to designate the different classes among scholars are: "Ba'ale Gemara," or "Ba'ale Talmud," those versed in the Talmud; "Ba'ale Miḳra," those versed in the Bible; and "Ba'ale Mishnah," those versed in...
    CAPPADOCIA – ...subheadinglevel2" name="anchor1">In the Bible. The Septuagint, the Syriac Hexapla, the Targum Onkelos, and the Jerusalem Targum identify (Deut. ii. 23) the Biblical Caphtor with ...where the reading ("Medes") serves as basis. According to this interpretation, the Bible would testify to an emigration of the Cappadocians from Assyrian and Median...
    CHAINS – ...A word employed in English versions of the Bible as an equivalent for the various Hebrew terms applied to devices consisting of a series of links and used (1) as means of restraint, or (2) for ornamental ...Bibliography:Nowack, Lehrbuch der Hebräischen Archäologie, pp. 128et seq.; and the various Bible commentaries.
    BLOCH, SAMSON (SIMSON) B. ISAAC HA-LEVI – ...Galician author; born in Kulikow, near Lemberg, 1782; died there Oct. 7, 1845. He received the usual Talmudical education, but was also sufficiently instructed in the Bible and Hebrew grammar, things ...Bible.Bloch early became an enthusiastic devotee of the "Haskalah." His first literary attempt was the publication of the epistle which Solomon b. Adret wrote against the study of philosophy, especially by...
    BRÜLL, NEHEMIAH – ...subheadinglevel2" name="anchor1">Brüll's Scientific Importance. Brüll's researches ranged over almost all the branches of Jewish science, including Bible exegesis and grammar, Jewish history and literature, the ...numerous criticisms on new books. Many of these essays have also been printed separately. Following is a list of the more important of them, arranged according to subjects—Bible: "Beiträge zur Erklärung des Buches...
    CYMBALS – ...cymbals served to mark time or rhythm at dances or for singers and other musical performers. This is also their function in the Bible. In Ezra iii. 10 they accompany "ḥaẓoẓerot" (trumpets) only; but elsewhere they ...bibliographyitem">Benzinger, Arch. p. 271; John Stainer, Music of the Bible, London, without date; Riehm, Handwörterbuch, 2d ed., s.v. Becken.
    IGNORANCE OF THE LAW – ...law expressly stated in the Bible, and to other laws concerning which the scholar was convinced that his words would not be heeded. In other respects the Rabbis were ordered to teach and warn the peopleagainst ...articles/13761-sin">Sin.Bibliography: Hastings, Dict. Bible, s.v. Ignorance;
  • INCANTATION – ...auspicious conditions. Magic pervaded the religions of the Assyrians, Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, and in a still higher degree the religions of primitive peoples. According to the Bible the nations which ...Levy, "Neuhebr. Wörterb." ii. 459). Hence, the magician ( ) was a person who muttered magic formulas; but no example of such formulas has been preserved in the Bible.
  • JACOB B. ELEAZAR – ...Winter and Wünsche, "Jüdische Litteratur," ii. 183) is erroneous. He was probably a native of Toledo, where he had access to the famous Bible Codex Hilleli (David Ḳimḥi, "Miklol," ed. Fürst, p. 78b); subsequently he ...it in his lexicon (see Bacher, "Aus dem Wörterbuche Tanchum Jerushalmi's," 1903, p. 42), says in the introduction to his Bible commentary that the book was in reality, and not merely metaphorically, complete, as...