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YEẒIRAH, SEFER – ...Influence. The later "Sefer Yeẓirah" is devoted to speculations concerning God and the angels. The ascription of its authorship to R...
JUDAISM – ...nature was transferred by the Gnostic and Christian systems to Satan. In the Jewish Scriptures Satan has his place among the angels of heaven, and is bound to execute the will of God, his master (Job i. 7); and ...angels"]" ("Elohim"; Ps. viii. 6 [A. V. 5]); "Thou hast made him ruler over the work of Thine hand" (ib. verse 7 [6]). This twofold nature of man, half animal, half deity, is frequently alluded to in Job (iv. 17-19 ...translators have "angels"; see Book of Jubilees, xv. 27, and Mek., Beshallaḥ, vi.; Ex. R. xxx. 11, xxxii. 1; Gen. R. viii.; and Targ. Yer. to Gen. i. 27; Symmachus and Saadia translate: "God created him in a noble...
SAMARITANS – ...confusing them with the Sadducees) accuse them of disbelief in angels and in the immortality of the soul. Their earliest liturgies especially determine the amount of truth in these charges. The essential articles of ...expressions, which has often been pointed out in the Targum. God created without hands; He rested, but not from weariness. He made man in the image of the angels; and it was an angel who delivered the Law on Sinai ...the beginningof the volume are some anonymous prayers—a prayer of Moses, a prayer of Joshua, and the prayers of the angels. Some of these are undoubtedly old; but, curiously enough, they do not appear in all the...
SHEMONEH 'ESREH – ...gladdened. The angels also were invoked; and the appeal was summed up: "Do it for Thy sake, if not forours."] May the words of my mouth and the meditations of my heart be acceptable in Thy sight, O Eternal...
BIBLIOMANCY – ...ib.; compare 38). The last letter, "N," serves as the last letter in the name of the good angels (M. V. 61). "Ezel...
JEREMIAH – ...tent and the Ark of the Covenant taken [by angels ?] to the mountain from which God showed the Holy Land to Moses shortly before his death (II Macc. ii. 5 et seq.; comp. Ark in Rabbinical Literature
CHURCH FATHERS – ...variously. Goldfahn has counted in Justin Martyr ("Dialogus cum Tryphone") twenty-six Hebrew traditions and six polemico-apologetic Haggadot. Among these may be mentioned: the eating by the three angels who appeared to...
HELLENISM – ...unsuccessful, he ordered a persecution of the Jews of Alexandria, although they were in no way responsible for the miscarriage of his plans. The persecution, however, came to naught, as two angels benumbed the power of...
PHARISEES – ...the belief in angels and demons. As Ecclesiastes and Ecclesiasticus indicate, the upper classes adhered for a long time to the Biblical view concerning the soul and the hereafter, caring little for the
PRAYER-BOOKS – ...the thirteenth century. The book contains a prayer by the angels and a prayer at sacrifices. Another old liturgy is that of the Samaritans, transliterated into Hebrew by M. Heidenheim (Leipsic, 1885; comp. "La...
JESUS OF NAZARETH – ...the story representing Jesus as the son of the Virgin Mary and of the Holy Ghost (taken as masculine, Matt. i. 20-23; Luke i. 27-35). So also the story of the angels and shepherds hailing the babe in the manger...
CHRISTIANITY IN ITS RELATION TO JUDAISM – ...Luke ix. 29-36 with Matt. xxviii. 16 et seq.), and of his moving through the air to be near the divine throne, served by the angels and the holy (not "wild") beasts ("ḥayyot"), and holding Scriptural ...saint-worship; and so the door was opened wide to admit in the guise of saints the various deities of paganism, the policy of the medieval Church being to create a large pantheon of saints, apostles, and angels...
CIRCUMCISION – ...and eternal perdition'; for all the angels of the Presence and of the Glorification have been so from the day of their creation, and God's anger will be kindled against the children of the covenant if they make ...living God, our Inheritance and our Rock, command [Thy angels; see Maimonides, "Pe'er ha-Dor," responsum No. 134] to save Thy beloved kindred [Israel] from the pit [of Gehenna], for the sake of Thy covenant which...
ESSENES – ...name of the author brings about the redemption," Abot vi. 6, based upon Esth. ii. 22), and "that he will with equal care guard the books of the order and the names of the angels." These oaths give a...
GENESIS, THE BOOK OF – ...case it is parallel to "ha-Elohim," the divine guidance of human life; more often, however, it denotes the "angels" ("mal'akim"), messengers of God in human shape who carry His behests to men and who seem to enter...
PHILO JUDÆUS – ...Philo endeavored to harmonize this conception with the Bible by designating these powers as angels ("De Gigantibus," § 2 [i. 263]; "De Somniis," i. 22 [i. 641 et seq.]), whereby he destroyed an essential ...the doctrines of the Divine Word creating the world, the divine throne-chariot and its cherub, the divine splendor and its shekinah, and the name of God as well as the names of the angels; and Philo borrowed from...
MOSES BEN MAIMON – ...1]) can not be taken as a mere figure of speech. The angels mentioned in the Bible are identical with the Intelligences. There is, however, one point on which Maimonides differs from his master. According to ...Moreh." His views concerning angels, prophecy, and miracles, and especially his assertion that he would have had no difficulty in reconciling the Biblical account of the Creation with the doctrine of the eternity...
THEOLOGY – ...includes also the invocation of angels or aught else as mediators between God and man. The Jew needs no agent whatever when he prays to his God: "When men will approach God," says the Talmud (Yer. Ber. ix. 13a), "they ...need seek out no mediator, nor need they announce their arrival through a doorkeeper. God says to them, 'When ye are in need, call upon none of the angels, neither Michael nor Gabriel, but call upon Me, and I will...
TALMUD – ...and Simon (3d cent.), the one adding, "like the angels," and the other, "like the priests"; comments on these two comparisons (2c, 20-31). Further discussion regarding the beginning of the day, introduced by a ...and the members of the college; Jonah's quotation of Ḥanina's saying on the names of the months, and a saying of Simeon b. Laḳish on the names of the angels (56d, 52-77). (b) The "new year for the...
ISLAM – ...confession ("kalimata al-shahadah") is amplified into the following creed: "I believe in Allah, in his angels, in his [revealed] Scriptures, in his Prophets, in the future life, in the divine decree [in respect to] the...
ELIJAH – ...him with feathers, enveloped him with fire, took away from him the desire of eating and drinking, and joined him to His angels. According to Ibn al-Athir, God made Elijah of a twofold nature: man and angel...
JOSEPHUS, FLAVIUS – ...Josephus remarks (see B. M. 86b) that every one of the three angels who appeared to Abraham had aspecial mission. This is also found in Philo ("De Abrahamo," §§ 22, 28) and in Justin Martyr ("Dial. cum Tryph." § 56...
POLEMICS AND POLEMICAL LITERATURE – ...in the palace of Hadrian, who questioned Joshua as to how God created the world (Gen. R. x.); concerning the angels (Gen. R. lxxviii.; Lam. R. iii. 21); as to the resurrection of the body (Gen. R. xxviii.; Eccl...
SELIḤAH – ...Moreover, epidemic diseases, drought, fires, and wars gave rise to seliḥot supplicating God's mercy and the intervention of angels.Among Sephardim and Ashkenazim.
NEW TESTAMENT – ...even above the angels (comp. Mark i. 13; Matt. iv. 11).Mythical as is this story at the beginning of Mark, it is but the reflex of the older tale of his transfiguration, representing him as having been...
BABYLONIA – ...post-Biblical, was influenced by Zoroastrianism. In Palestine it was acknowledged that the names of the angels (see Angelology) were of Babylonian origin (Gen. R. xlviii. 9...
ETHICS – The science of morals, or of human duty; the systematic presentation of the fundamental principles of human conduct and of the obligations and duties deducible therefrom. It includes, therefore, also the exposition of the
TURKEY – ...Isaac Luria and his disciple Ḥayyim Vital. The former communed with departed spirits, talked with animals and angels, and developed a peculiar...
PLANTS – ...Apocalypse of Baruch (xii.; K. ii. 456) angels bear baskets of flowers which represent the virtues of the righteous. In the sacred rites, palm-branches, fruits of trees (citrons), and osier-twigs are mentioned (Jubilees...
JERUSALEM – Ancient: Cross-Sectional View of Jerusalem (West to East) as Seen from the South.(After Heyck, "Die Kreuzzüge.")Capital at first of all Israel, later of the kingdom of Judah; chief city of Palestine; situated in 31° 46′ 45″ N.