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BOETHUSIANS – ...Zadok and Boethus were themselves the founders of the sects).Historical in this story is the statement that these two sects denied the immortality of the soul and resurrection. Again, the Midrash is on the...
PATIENCE – ...even to the hour of death, with the assurance of blissful immortality beyond. In Ecclus. (Sirach) ii. 1, 15 the further thought is developed that patience is not an expression of faith only, but of fortitude also...
SKEPTIC – ...amidst a life of restless searching after truth, denied the immortality of the soul and the divine revelation. His excommunication by the Amsterdam authorities was inspired by fear of the Christian Church rather...
SLONIMSKI, ḤAYYIM SELIG – ...1852); "Meẓi'ut ha-Nefesh we-Ḳiyyumah," a defense, based on science, of the immortality of the soul (ib. 1852); "Ot Zikkaron," a biographical sketch of Alexander von Humboldt (Berlin, 1858). All these works...
TREE OF LIFE – ...put forth their hands and take of the tree of life and live forever. The view of the writer was that Eden contained a tree the magical power of the fruit of which conferred immortality upon him who partook of it...
AARON BEN ELIJAH, THE YOUNGER, of Nicomedia – ...God's servant. From chapter 95 to the end of the work, revelation and law, with the soul's perfection, its immortality and future bliss, are the subjects treated. The two trees in paradise are taken as symbols of ...oral law. Essentially different from the attitude of Maimonides, and in fact from that of all Aristotelian thinkers, is Aaron's attitude toward immortality, which he bases chiefly upon moral grounds, the postulate...
PROVERBS, BOOK OF – ...Jews came under Greek influence.No Immortality or Messiah. The theology of Proverbs is the simplest form of theism. The individual man stands in direct ...life; the conception of the underworld is the same as in the body of Old Testament writings; there is no reference to ethical immortality (on xi. 7 and xiv. 32 see the commentaries). Wickedness leads to premature...
AGUILAR, GRACE – ...immortality in the Old Testament. Miss Aguilar's other religious writings —some of them written as early as 1836—were collected in a volume of "Essays and Miscellanies" (1851-52). The first part consists of "Sabbath...
BEER, BENJAMIN BEN ELIJAH HA-ROFE – ...Benjamin himself, and the legend expresses his belief in the immortality of the soul. As to the eighteen letters, Geiger explains the first eight as Loewe did, and in the remainder he finds the initials of Job xiv. 13...
ARISTOTLE IN JEWISH LEGEND – ...of a Jew, Simeon, his views with regard to the immortality of the soul, to the eternity of the world, and similar tenets. The existence of this book is mentioned for the first time about 1370 by Ḥayyim of...
CASPI, JOSEPH BEN ABBA MARI BEN JOSEPH BEN JACOB – ...and immortality, to explain the Biblical doctrine that God visits the iniquities of the fathers upon the children, and to explain the relation of wickedness to prosperity; (22 and 23) "'Ammude Kesef" (Pillars of...
HOPE – ...sight of men, yet is their hope full of immortality"(ib. xii. 19). "But by such works hast Thou taught Thy people that the just man should be...
OPHITES – ...present the threefold division of the realm of blessedness or immortality which forms a part of all Gnostic heresies—the world of spirits, the corporeal world, and redemption. The "Naas" is the primal being and the...
CRESCAS, ḤASDAI BEN ABRAHAM – ...course. For them Aristotle was infallible. His concepts of God's providence, of creation, matter, and immortality were theirs. They had often enough been attacked by orthodoxy, but excommunications and invectives ...Former thinkers made immortality depend on knowledge. This is contrary to the teachings of religion, and also utterly unreasonable. Love brings about the soul's happiness of eternal duration in the hereafter and the ...preponderatingly in favor of the assumption that the world and matter are created, and Gersonides' counter-reasoning is so inconclusive, that Crescas regards the denial of creation as heterodox. Immortality, punishment...
SOUL – ...during man's lifetime acquire immortality?" Then, if the soul is to be considered a mere faculty of the body, which ceases with the death of the latter, and only the acquired intellect is a real substance which ...See Eschatology; immortality-of-the-soul">Immortality; Transmigration of Souls.
ZOHAR – ...began to regard it as a sacred book and to invoke its authority in the decision of some ritual questions. They were attracted by its glorification of man, its doctrine of immortality, and its ethical principles ...which are more in keeping with the spirit of Talmudical Judaism than are those taught by the philosophers. While Maimonides and his followers regarded man as a fragment of the universe whose immortality is ...dependent upon the degree of development of his active intellect, the Zohar declared him to be the lord of the Creation, whose immortality is solely dependent upon his morality. Indeed, according to the Zohar, the...
BAṬALYUSI, AL-HAFIZ ABU MOHAMMED ABD ALLAH IBN MOHAMMED IBN AL-SID AL – ...eight proofs of the immortality of the soul. The greater part of this proof has been drawn from Baḥya's "Ma'ani al-Nafs" (Reflections on the Soul).Bibliography:
IBN SHEM-ṬOB, JOSEPH BEN SHEMṬOB – ...question as to man's summum bonum he concludes it to be the Torah, which teaches and promises immortality, whereas the Greeks only speculate as to man's final goal. That the Torah and the philosophy of the Greeks have...
DEISM – ...assumption of immortality, morality can not stand, nor can God's Providence be established (Phædon). Revelation for him is not necessary to religion; but the national law of Judaism, which is not natural, had to be...
JOSHUA B. LEVI – ...becomes the habitation of the wicked ('Er. 19a). In Ps. lxxxiv. 5 he finds Biblical authority for the resurrection of the dead (Sanh. 91b), and in Gen. R. xxvi. he expresses the liberal view that immortality is the...
ASENATH – ...pious man who blesses the living God with his lips, who eats the blessed bread of life, drinks of the blessed cup of immortality, and anoints himself with the oil of incorruption, to kiss a foreign woman who ...ones of God. The angel puts some into the mouth of Asenath, saying: "Behold, thou eatest the bread of life and drinkest the cup of immortality, and art anointed with the ointment of incorruption. Behold, thy flesh...
SADDUCEES – ...resurrection (Sanh. 90b; Mark xii. 12; Ber. ix. 5, "Minim"), which was a national rather than an individual hope. As to the immortality of the soul, they seem to have denied this as well (see Hippolytus, "Refutatio," ix ...1871, p. 30). The Wisdom of Ben Sira, which, like Ecclesiastes and older Biblical writings, has no reference whatsoever to the belief in resurrection or immortality, is, according to Geiger, a product of Sadducean...
THEOLOGY – ...reconcile the doctrine of divine retaliation with the fact that pious men suffer while transgressors prosper, is the idea of the immortality of the soul.Immortality of ...existence in another world; and in this other world does complete retaliation take place. The doctrine of the immortality of the soul and of a future life is not definitely stated in the Holy Scriptures; but it is ...The doctrine of the soul's immortality, and of a future life in which retribution shall take place, is set forth plainly and emphatically in post-Biblical Jewish literature—in the Mishnah and in the Talmud. "Let...
PARADISE – ...18; Yer. Peah. i. 1, end).Symbolic Significance. The Talmud deduces the immortality of the soul from the Scriptures. "The spirit shall return to God who ...as regards his theory of punishment after death. SeeEschatology; immortality-of-the-soul">Immortality of the Soul; LEVI BEN GERSHON – ...the student was left in the dark as to Maimonides' real opinion on the subject. These questions are: the immortality of the soul; prophecy; God's omniscience; divine providence; the nature of the celestial ...but if, as maintained by the nominalists, nothing exists but individuals, and universals are mere names, immortality is out of the question. In opposition to Maimonides ("Moreh," iii. 18) Levi defends the theory ...of the realists and maintains thereby the principle of immortality.On Prophecy. The second division of the "Milḥamot" is devoted to philosophy. It was...
ACOSTA, URIEL – ...thus condemned himself to a life of severe isolation almost from the hour of his arrival in Amsterdam. When it got abroad that he was preparing a book which should set forth his grave doubts as to the immortality...
BAHYA BEN JOSEPH IBN PAḲUDA – ...family circles and comfortable homes to lead a life of seclusion devoted to God only.Immortality of the Soul. Baḥya here dwells at length on the hope of ...immortality, which, in contradistinction to the popular belief in bodily resurrection, he finds intentionally alluded to only here and there in the Scriptures, in view of the immature and childlike understanding of the ...multitudes, who need a training to morality by threats and bribes, by rewards and punishments, that appeal to the sense. To Baḥya the belief in immortality is purely spiritual, as expressed in Zech. iii. 7, "I give thee...
GABBAI – ...of an unpublished philosophical work entitled "Ta'alumot Ḥokmah," consisting of six treatises: (1) on the knowledge of God; (2) on abstract ideas; (3) on the spheres; (4) on the elements; (5) on the immortality...
OPTIMISM AND PESSIMISM – ...after the Exile the idea of immortality led to a modification of the relations between optimism and pessimism. In Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), for example, a practical pessimism is joined to the fundamentally...
LEVIATHAN AND BEHEMOTH – ...substitute for behemoth and leviathan (see Wolff, " Muhammedanische Eschatologie," 1872, pp. 174, 181); (3) the ox Hadhayosh, from which the food of immortality is prepared, and which forms the parallel of behemoth; and...