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FALL OF ANGELS – ...In Apocalyptic Writings. The conception of fallen angels—angels who, for wilful, rebellious conduct against God, or through weakness under temptation.thereby forfeiting their angelic dignity, were degraded ...7-10). Originally Satan was one of God's angels, Lucifer, who, lusting for worldly power, was degraded. Samael (Yalk., Gen. 25), originally the chief of the angels around God's throne, becomes the angel of ...the "nefilim" (A. V. "giants"), undoubtedly in consequence of an incorrect interpretation of this word as "those that fell from heaven." The story of these two angels is found in brief form in Yalḳ., Gen. 44; it...
NEPHILIM – ...angels">See Fall of Angels....
ANGELOLOGY – ...Biblical, Talmudical, and Post-Talmudical: Angelology is that branch of theology which treats of angels. Angels (from αγγελōς = messenger, Greek equivalent ...form or another, the belief in angels appears in the earliest stages of Jewish history, and continues to live in the spiritual world of the Jews and those professing the religions that sprang from Judaism; namely ...and ("the Holy Ones" [perhaps equivalent to "fiery ones," "unapproachable"; see Holiness. K.], Ps. lxxxix. 6, 8 [R. V. 5, 7]).Angels appear to man in...
YIẒḤAḲ BEN PARNAK – ...human being. When a man is dying three angels come to his bedside—the angel of death, the recording angel, and the guardian angel; and these three review his entire life. If he has been a pious man, three more ...angels appear; and while the struggle with death is going on one of these angels recites Isa. lvii. 1, the second ib. lvii. 2, and the third ib. lviii. 8. At last four more angels descend to the...
RAPHAEL – ...Gabriel. This must be due to chance, however, since Raphael is an important figure in the pre-Christian Apocrypha, while from the fact that he ranks immediately below the two angels just mentioned it may be concluded ...xxxiv. 6). In Enoch, xx. 1-7 he is the second among the six or seven angels, Michael, as the most prominent, being placed in the Middle (see Jew. Encyc. i. 590, s.v.
BERIAH – ...Yeẓirah), the third world, that of the angels. It is, accordingly, of the purest essence and without admixture of matter.Bibliography:
BENJAMIN BEN ZERAḤ – ...of God and angels used by him in his piyyuṭim. He wrote 15 poems ("yoẓerot") for the Sabbaths preceding the feasts, and 40 seliḥot, published in the Maḥzor of the German rite.His piyyuṭim have an easy ...his "Ofan," in which he gives the names of angels, Benjamin was inclined to mysticism.Bibliography: Zunz...
SHAMḤAZAI – ...Name of a fallen angel. According to Targ. pseudo-Jonathan on Gen. vi. 4, "nefilim" (A. V. "giants") denotes the two angels Shamḥazai and his companion Uzzael orAzael, who fell from heaven and dwelt on ...earth "in those days," that is, at the time of the Flood. The legend of the fall of these two angels is narrated in a midrash as follows: When God became angry at the children of men because of their idolatry in ...the time before the Flood, the two angels Shamḥazai and Azael arose and said: "Lord of the world, said we not unto Thee at the foundation of the world, 'Man is not worthy that thou shouldst be mindful of him...
HANAMEEL – ...knew the names of the angels, and could conjure them at will (see Incantation). Thus when the Chaldeans were besieging Jerusalem he conjured angels, who, in obedience to ...his summons, came down from heaven as warriors and put the enemies of Israel to flight. Thereupon God changed the names of the angels so that Hanameel's conjurations would be unavailing to prevent the destruction...
AẒILUT – ...and angels: In the Aẓilah-world the Shekinah alone rules; in the Beriah-world are the throne of God and the souls of the just under the dominion of Akatriel ("Crown of God"); in the Yeẓirah-world are the "holy ...creatures" (ḥayyot) of Ezekiel's vision, and the ten classes of angels ruled over by Meṭaṭron; and in the 'Asiyah-world are the Ofanim, and the angels that combat evil, governed by Sandalphon. The Zohar ...world (world of creation) the throne of God, emanating from the light of the Sefirot; the Yezirah-world (world of becoming) the ten classes of angels, forming the halls for the Sefirot; and the Asiyah-world (world...
LUCIFER – ...original mountain of the gods in that country, of the fall of the angels under the leadership of Samḥazai (the heaven-seizer) and Azael (Enoch, vi. 6 et seq.; angels">see Fall of ...Angels). Another legend represents Samḥazai, because he repented of his sin, as being suspended between heaven and earth (like a star) instead of being hurled down to Sheol (see Midr. Abḳir in Yalḳ. i. 44 ...hosts of angels, and since then he has been flying in the air continually above the abyss (comp. Test. Patr., Benjamin, 3; Ephes. ii. 2, vi. 12). Accordingly Tertullian ("Contra Marrionem," v. 11, 17), Origen...
RECORDING ANGEL – ...Two attending angels follow man as witnesses, and when a man dies all his deeds are enumerated, with place and date of occurrence, and the man himself indorses the statement" (Ta'an. 11a). Again, citing Mal. iii ...heaven by the angels (See Prayer). The principal recording angel appears to be Gabriel, "the man clothed with linen," whom God ordered to place a sign upon the foreheads of the...
– ...Baruch," i. 2, ii. 3; comp. Jer. vi. 27; Pesiḳ. 115b). According to Tobit (iii. 26), angels bring the prayers of men before God's throne. Enoch is asked by the fallen angels to intercede for them (Enoch, xiii. 4-7 ...against prayers to angels for intercession. Says R. Judan: "A man in trouble who has a great man for a patron stands at the door awaiting the answer the servants will bring, whether or not he will be permitted to ...Yer. Ber. l.c.).Nevertheless, to judge from the early Christian writers (Col. ii. 19; Origen, "Contra Celsum," i. 26, v. 6; Clement, "Stromata," vi. 5, 41; Aristides, "Apologue," xiv.), angels were...
HEKALOT RABBATI; HEKALOT ZUṬARTI – ...sight of it inspires, so that even the myriads of angels, who have it before theireyes continually, are sometimes seized with an ecstatic trembling. Next comes a chapter on the martyrs during the persecutions of ...angels, and of the formulas by which they can be invoked. A description of the seven heavenly halls ("hekalot") follows. Each hall is guarded by eight angels, whose names the author derives from activities ...formulas which have the virtue of compelling the angels to grant him admission. Meṭaṭron serves him as guide. To undertake the perilous Merkabah-ride one must possess all...
BARUCH, APOCALYPSE OF (Greek) – ...El. vi.; Yalḳ., Eccl. 967), the angels draw the sun's chariot (ch. vii., viii.), and at night four angels remove the sun's crown (according to Pirḳe R. El. l.c., the sun is attended by different angels by ...the passage at the end of ch. x. is to be explained. In the fifth heaven Baruch meets Michael, prince of the angels and keeper of the celestial keys, who is descending to receive the prayers of men and to carry a ...compare Ginzberg, in l.c. p. 13.The conclusion of the Apocalypse (ch. xii-xvii.) describes the acts of the angels who accompany men on earth (Ḥag. 16a) and report in heaven concerningthem. The...
SANDALFON – ...brother of Meṭaṭron, and these two angels, according to Naphtali Herz ("'Emeḳ ha-Melek," p. 104a) and Jellinek ("Auswahl Kabbalistischer Mystik," p. 5), are "the lads" of Gen ...angel who stands on the earth, and his head reaches up to the 'ḥayyot' [animal-shaped angels]; he is taller than his fellows by the length of a journey of 500 years; he binds crowns for his Creator" (Ḥag. 13b; comp ...it, so that God placed Himself before it for his protection. The crowns that Sandalfon binds on God's head are symbols of praise for the different angels" (Pesiḳ. R. l.c.).In the oldest enumeration...
ABRAHAM'S OAK – ...pitched at the time that the angels came to him and promised him a son and heir; also when he was negotiating with Ephron the Hittite for the cave of Machpelah (Gen. xviii. and xxiii.). Some have connected the oak ...under its shadow, connecting the subject of the feast with the three angels of the Biblical narrative. The inventive traveler Odoricus (1286-1331) connects the oak with the legend of the Cross ("Itinerarium," chap...
BENJAMIN HA-ZẠDDIḲ – ...own means. After the lapse of some time Benjamin became sick unto death. Then, legend says, the ministering angels addressed the Lord, saying, "Master of the universe, Thou hast said, Whosoever preserves a single...
ENOCH, BOOKS OF (Ethiopic and Slavonic) – ...can be judged from these books, the legends of Enoch are the following: (1) He went during his lifetime to heaven, "walked" with God's angels over all heaven (or heavens) and earth, came back to his family and ...told them what he had seen, and finally was again taken up to heaven. (2) During his journeys he saw the secrets of heaven and earth, that is, the natural phenomena. (3) He saw what had become of the angels, "sons ...of God," who, according to Gen. vi. 1-4, had come to earth and sinned with the daughters of men. (4) He interceded for these fallen angels. In 3 and 4 evidently two different cycles of legends have crossed each...
ḤASDAI I. – ...angels Harut and Marut, great teachers of magic (see Hughes, "Dict. of Islam," p. 167). It is related that Mujahid, against Ḥasdai's express condition, pronounced the name of God on seeing them, and thus did not...
ḤIYYA B. GAMMADA – ...transmitted in the name of Jose b. Saul: "At the death of a just man the angels proclaim that one who is righteous has come, and God answers, 'Let the other ẓaddiḳim come out to meet him'" (Ket. 104a). A sentence of the...
JUDAH B. PEDAYA – ...xix. 12), hereads "pe" instead of "po," and supposes that the angels forbade Lot to entreat forgiveness for the people of Sodom after they had manifested their shameful desires (Gen. R. xxvi.).
KAINAN – ...by the rebel angels, the Watchers, who descended from heaven in the days of Jered and led mankind away from God. Similarly, Josephus ("Ant." i. 2, § 3) speaks of pillars of brick and stone upon which the...
URIEL – ...Name of an archangel. Of the four chief angels, Michael, Gabriel,
YANNAI BEN ISHMAEL – ...slaves (Yer. Yeb. 8d). Several haggadot of Yannai's have been preserved, among which may be mentioned one treating of Adam's meeting with the angels (B. M. 86b), and a farewell address based on the verse Judges i...
'ANANI, 'INANI, 'INYANI, 'ANANIEL B. SASON – ...2-4) he remarks, "The Holy One—blessed be He!—said to Moses, 'When I will it, one of my angels stretcheth forth his hand from heaven and reacheth to the ground,' as the Scripture says [Ezek. viii. 3], 'He put ...forth the form of a hand, and took me by a lock of mine head'; and when it so pleaseth me, I make three angels sit under one tree [Gen. xviii. 4]; when I choose, my glory fills the universe, as it is written [Jer...
BORDERS – ...white arabesque border, and two angels with flute and drum at the top. Portals are most frequently used, being found on the first Bomberg editions at Venice, and occurring as late as the nineteenth century ...surprisingly elaborate for that establishment. Sulzbach editions of the Maḥzor frequently have rich title-page ornaments. Moses and Aaron with two angels above them are seen in the editions of Zolkiev, 1764, and in many...
AGATE – ...Naḥmani (B. B. 75a), two angels, Gabriel and Michael, discussed in heaven the meaning of kadkod (Agate), occurring in Isa. liv. 12:2: "And I will make thy windows of agates [V01p230001.jpg...
ABYSS – ...hell; the abode of certain demons. As such the Abyss of Fire is mentioned in the Book of Enoch (xviii. 11-16, 19; xxi. 1-6; xc. 21-25) as the prison-house of impure angels (compare Luke, viii. 31; Rev. ix. 1; xi...
ANER – ...Therefore, the angels, when visiting Abraham, avoided the domain of Aner, and sought Abraham while he was dwelling in the territory of Mamre, because the latter, unlike his elder brother, Aner, had said to Abraham: "It...