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JUDAS MACCABEUS – ...attacked Judas with his army, but was defeated and slain, and his sword was thenceforth borne by Judas; on that occasion the Jews took a great deal of booty (I Macc. iii. 10-12; "Ant." xii. 7, § 1). This victory must ...have brought Judas many recruits, and the news of the battle moved Seron, strategus of Cœle-Syria, to march against him with a considerable army, including many Jewish traitors. The small Jewish band, weak with ...fasting, was at first dismayed by the might of the enemy, but Judas succeeded in inflaming their zeal for the holy cause, and they gave battle in the narrow pass of Bethhoron, northwest of Jerusalem. The Syrians were...
MATTATHIAS MACCABEUS – ...Judas Maccabeus, Eleazar Avaran, and Jonathan Apphus. The Aramaic-sounding cognomens, which have not been fully explained, were probably given them by their father, with reference to contemporary events or to the ...unimportant in the books of the Maccabees and in Josephus), and sometimes Judas. The First Book of Maccabees and Josephus enumerate the sons of Mattathias as follows: John Gaddis or Caddis (Johanan Gadi), Simon Thassi...
JONATHAN MACCABEUS – ...Jonathan was buried by Simeon at Modin. Nothing is known of his two captive sons. One of his daughters was the ancestress of Flavius Josephus (Josephus, "Vita," § 1). judas-maccabeus">See Judas ...Maccabeus.G. S. Kr.
BEAN, BÆAN – ...A tribe destroyed by Judas Maccabeus (I Macc. v. 4; Josephus, "Ant." xii. 8, § 1) on account of its persistent attacks upon the Jews.J.
AZOTUS – ...where Judas Maccabeus was killed. It is perhaps identical with 1.S.
CHARACA – ...A city about 750 stadia distant from Caspis. It was the seat of the Jews called "Tubieni." Judas Maccabeus went to this place after his conquest of Caspis (II Macc. xii. 17).BOSOR – ...1. A city of Gilead, which Judas Maccabeus conquered (I Macc. v. 26, 36). It may be identified with the modern "Buṣr el-Bariri" (Buhl, "Geographie des Alten Palästina," p. 253). 2...
MACCABEES, THE – ...Name given to the Hasmonean family. Originally the designation "Maccabeus" (Jerome, "Machabæus") was applied solely to Judas, the third son of Mattathias the Hasmonean (I Macc. ii. 4, iii. 1, et passim ...articles/7319-hasmoneans">see Hasmoneans; judas-maccabeus">Judas Maccabeus; maccabeus">Mattathias Maccabeus.
AZARIAS – ...General in the army of Judas Maccabeus, who, together with Joseph, son of Zacharias, was left in command of the Judean army (165 B.C.) when Judas and Jonathan were absent in Gilead and Simon in...
CEDRON – ...1. Name of the brook Kidron as given in John xviii. 1. Near the stream was the garden in which Jesus was taken by the officials after he had been betrayed by Judas (see Kidron ...Judea. According to the account of Josephus ("Ant." xiii. 7, § 3), Simon Maccabeus, although at this time quite old, himself led the attack and drove back Cendebeus; but, according to I Macc. xv. 39-41, xvi. 9 ...Simon delegated the command to his sons Judas and John. Judas was wounded, but John continued the pursuit to Cedron and thence to Azotus (Ashdod). Cedron is perhaps the same as Gederoth (Josh. xv. 41; II Chron...
DATHEMA – ...The name of a fortress in Gilead to which the Jews fled when hard pressed by Timotheus. There they shut themselves in, prepared for a siege, and sent to Judas Maccabeus for aid (I Macc. v. 9-11). Dathema ...Judas attacked in three divisions, drove off Timotheus, killed eight thousand of the enemy, and saved the city (I Macc. v. 29-34). The Peshiṭta reads "Rametha," from which George Adam Smith ("Historical Geography...
GORGIAS – ...Syrian general of the second century B.C. After Judas Maccabeus had defeated the Syrians, they determined to send a stronger force against him. According to I Macc. iii. 38, which Josephus follows ...Judas and Simon Maccabeus were carrying the war outside of that country, two subordinate generals, Joseph and Azariah, in violation of orders undertook an expedition against Jamnia, but were severely beaten by ...merchants, to whom they intended to sell the Jewish prisoners as slaves. The Syrians camped at Emmaus; and Gorgias was sent thence with 5,000 infantry and 1,000 horse to attack Judas by night, his guides being...
EUPOLEMUS – ...Son of John, son of Accos; envoy of Judas Maccabeus to the Romans. To secure himself against the Syrians Judas sent Eupolemus with Jason, son of Eleazar, to win the Romans as friends and allies. The Romans ...granted. Josephus ("Ant." xii. 10, § 6) says that the document was issued for the "high priest Judas," whom Willrich identifies with Aristobulus I., also called "Judas...
ADULLAM – ...cave" rests upon a false reading of the original and should be replaced by "stronghold." In later times Judas Maccabeus visited the city of Adullam (II Macc. xii. 38).
ADARSA – ...Under the name of Adasa it is mentioned in I Macc. vii. 40, and in Josephus, "Ant." xii. 10, § 5, as the scene of the decisive battle between Judas Maccabeus and the Syrian general Nicanor, which took place on Adar...
BAAL-MEON – ...been connected with the sons of Bæan (I Macc. v. 4 et seq.), who were punished by Judas Maccabeus for their hostility toward the Jews. The name of this same Bedouin tribe occurs also in Arabic authors...
EPHRON – ...between Naphtoah and Kirjathjearim (Josh. xv. 9).4. A city on the east of the Jordan, taken and destroyed by Judas Maccabeus in his expedition to Gilead (I Macc. v. 46-51; II Macc. xii. 27; Josephus, "Ant...
JUDAH (Jewish Prince) – ...probably named after his great-uncle Judas Maccabeus; hence it must be assumed that he was born after 161 B.C. and was about twenty-five years of age at the time of his death.KEFAR-SALAMA (CAPHAR-SALAMA) – ...Scene of Nicanor's unsuccessful attack upon Judas Maccabeus (I Macc. vii. 31; comp. Josephus, "Ant." xii. 10, § 4). The exact site is somewhat doubtful. There are several names of places in modern Palestine...
MASSEL, JOSEPH – ...original poems, and translations from the English (ib. 1898); "Dibre Aḥiḳar," translation of "Ahikar the Wise " (ib. 1898); "Yehudah ha-Makkabi," a translation of Longfellow's "Judas Maccabeus" (ib...
BACCHIDES – ...Nicanor suffered defeat at the hands of Judas Maccabeus (ib. vii. 26-50), Demetrius again sent Bacchides and Alcimus to Judea, this time with an army of twenty thousand infantry and two thousand cavalry. At ...Eleasa (Laisa) he met Judas, whose three thousand soldiers had dwindled to eight hundred. Judas, though he put to flight the right wing of the Syrian army commanded by Bacchides himself, and pursued it to Azotus ...Judas, fled beyond the Jordan. Bacchides came upon them there on a Sabbath, and again suffered defeat, losing one thousand men (ib. ix. 43-49). He returned to Jerusalem, and, in order to subdue the Jews...
NICANOR – ...viii. 9). In anticipation of an easy victory, he had brought 1,000 slave-dealers into the camp, to whom he intended to sell the captive Jews; but when Gorgias was defeated by Judas Maccabeus, Nicanor was obliged ...sources, I and II Maccabees and Josephus. Although there is complete agreement in the statement that Nicanor approached Judas in a friendly way, he, according to I Macc. vii. 27, sought thereby to vanquish his ...opponent by treachery, whereas, according to II Macc. xiv. 28, he marched against Judas unwillingly and only at the king's command. The latter passage gives a detailed account of his threat to destroy Jerusalem and to...
ALCIMUS – ...B.C.; died at Jerusalem 160. He was of priestly family (I Macc. vii. 14). In consequence of the national movement under the Hasmoneans, and of the martial successes of Judas Maccabeus (164-163), the ...the punishment of Judas Maccabeus. Demetrius entrusted Bacchides, the governor of Cœle-syria, with this task, and sent him to install Alcimus in the office of high priest, the object of his ambition. In Judea ...in spite of pledges of safety, he put many of them to death in order to intimidate the rest. Bacchides himself massacred all the followers of Judas Maccabeus who fell into his hands; and committing Judea, with a...
ETHNARCH – ...Maccabeus, the chief hero of the book. It would follow from this that there were two ethnarchs even in this period: Judas Maccabeus and Simeon. Josephus calls the latter "ethnarch," probably following the Book of ...xiv. 47). The title Σαρβὴθ Σαβαυ,αιέλ given by Origen to the Book of the Maccabees, would then mean (= "scepter of the prince of the people of God"), referring to Judas...
LYSIAS – ...Judas Maccabeus. The same source states also that Lysias made peace with Judas and quotes the letter in which the former is supposed to have granted the demands of the Jews (II Macc. xi. 1-21).According to I ...Zur, and thus compelled Judas to raise the siege of Acre and give battle. The Jewish army was defeated near Beth-Zechariah, and Beth-Zur fell into the hands of the victors. The Syrians had already laid siege to...
ANTIOCHUS V., EUPATOR – ...accompanied by the young king, he set out against Judea. Against such an overwhelming array of force, the heroism of the comparatively small band of Judas Maccabeus could avail nothing. On the field of Beth-Zechariah...
BETH-HORON – ...the Syrian general Seron attempted to force an entrance by Beth-horon into the country, but was repulsed by Judas Maccabeus (I Macc. iii. 13 et seq.). Nicanor afterward met with the same fate (I Macc. vii...
JAAZER – ...5).According to Josephus ("Ant." xii. 8, § 1), Jaazer was captured and burned by Judas Maccabeus. The site of Jaazer was defined by Eusebius and Jerome ("Onomasticon," s.v. "Azor") as being 8 or...
JASON – ...Oniaden, pp. 106 et seq., Vienna, 1899.E. G. H. I. Br.2. Son of Eleazar; sent by Judas Maccabeus as envoy to Rome (I Macc. viii. 17; Josephus, "Ant." xii. 10, § 6). In the reference to the embassy in II Macc...
EMMAUS – ...Name of three places in Palestine. 1. A town, or place, memorable for the defeat of Gorgias by Judas Maccabeus (I Macc. iii. 40), situated in southern Judea, 22 miles, or...