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MENAḤEM OBEL – ...mourning">See Mourning....
SHIB'AH – ...mourning">See Mourning....
MOURNING – ...Mourning Period. Manifestation of sorrow and grief over the loss, by death or otherwise, of a relative, a friend, an honored leader or prophet, or over a ...supposed death of Joseph. David lamented for Absalom, in spite of the latter's ill conduct. The mourning for an only son was profound (Amos viii. 10). The days of mourning for parents were generally observed (Gen ...xxvii. 41). Joseph mourned seven days for his father (ib. 1. 10), while the mourning of the captive Gentile woman lasted thirty days (Deut. xxi. 13), showing that the Gentile period of mourning for a parent...
SEMAḤOT – ...Rabbati," one of the so-called small or later treatises which in the editions of the Babylonian Talmud are placed after the fourth order, Neziḳin; it treats of mourning for the dead. A collection of baraitot entitled ...mourning regulations to which it was applied was more copious than that contained in the Mishnah (M. Ḳ. iii.). So much, however, is certain, that besides the treatise which is now known as Semaḥot or Ebel Rabbati ...What is the Ebel Rabbati?" gives the reply: "Ebel is a treatise of the Mishnah in which are contained the regulations concerning mourning for the dead and most of the halakic ordinances of the third chapter of...
ATAD – ...place to Abel Mizraim, "mourning of Egypt," though in reality the element "Abel" signifies "meadow."J. Jr.
VAN OVEN, ABRAHAM – ...residents. He was a good Hebrew scholar, and wrote a Hebrew translation of Congreve's "Mourning Bride."J.
MO'ED ḲAṬAN – ...contains also regulations for the avoidance of mourning on these days (§ 5); for digging graves and sepulchers and preparing coffins (§ 6); for marriage (§ 7); for sewing (all may sew as usual, except tailors, who ...period of mourning and end it altogether; but if the mourning has not yet begun, they are not reckoned as part of it, while the Sabbath, on the contrary, is included in the period of mourning and does not terminate ...it (§ 5). Enumeration of the feasts which resemble the Sabbath in this respect (§ 6), and the mourning ceremonies observed in the intermediary festivals; with a description of how the women are to sing the...
TAMMUZ – ...after him,and remained there till the following spring. He is accordingly supposed to represent the spirit of the spring vegetation; and there was a period of mourning in Babylonia to mark the discontinuance of ...growth. It has been suggested that the fast of the Seventeenth of Tammuz was a survival in Jewish folk-lore of the mourning for Tammuz; while the myth of Adonis in classical literature has also been associated with...
ABEL-MIZRAIM – ...Occurs only in Genesis (l. 11). It is interpreted by Septuagint, Vulgate, and the Peshito (followed by A. V.) as "Mourning of the Egyptians," or "of Egypt"; and there can be no doubt that it was intended to ...Linn.), and its situation is given as being "beyond Jordan." This expression, "beyond Jordan," repeated in verse 11, seems very strange, as it implies that the mourning party went around the north end of the Dead ...In Rabbinical Literature: The rabbis say that both names, signifying respectively "The Mourning of Egypt" and "The Thorn Threshing-floor," are derived from...
BAREFOOT – ...according to LXX.; "stripped," A. V.) is, likewise, a sign of mourning. In Isa. xx. 2 the nakedness and the bare feet of the prophet may be intended to symbolize the neglected condition of captives (compare Job xii. 17 ...hand, in and around the house the wearing of sandals seems to have been very uncommon. For a different explanation of the custom of going Barefoot as a sign of mourning and then of grief in general, see Jastrow on ...in cases of mourning. The shoes worn in antiquity were only sandals—that is, soles tied upon the feet to protect them against the pricking of the hard stones or thorns of the road—whereas stockings were...
BRANDEIS, BARUCH JUDAH (HA-LEVI) – ...addish, burial of the dead, and mourning observances. The book, however, is incomplete and fragmentary, and is written in a heavy, ambiguous style.Bibliography:
OPPENHEIM, ABRAHAM ḤAYYIM – ...Rabbi at Péczel, Hungary, where he died at the age of twenty-eight, before 1825. He was the author of "Har Ebel" (Lemberg, 1824), ritual regulations on visiting the sick, mourning customs, etc., and of a...
SHEKANẒIB – ...were noted for the beautiful songs of mourning which they sang at burials. Rabbi Judah ha-Nasi refused to allow his children to live there because it was a town of mockers (Pes. 112b); but Rab Naḥman married a...
BALDNESS – ...of the passages of the Old Testament, however, in regard to Baldness refer to the total or partial shaving of the head as a sign of mourning—like cutting the beard, wearing sackcloth, and other disfigurements ...compare Jer. ix. 26, xxv. 23, xlix. 32; Herodotus, iii. 8; Egyptian representations; and see Beard.The mourning custom of "shaving" the head is attributed to the Philistines ...exception, and shaved the head regularly (Her. iii. 12), but allowed the hair to grow in mourning (idem, ii. 36); see, however, Wiedemann, "Herodot's Zweites Buch," p. 157, on these statements of Herodotus...
ASHES – ...Use. —Biblical Data: The usual translation of the Hebrew "efer" which occurs often in expressions of mourning ...afar we-efer."). There is, however, a difference in the usage: in expressions of mourning it is only the latter ("efer") that occurs in combination with "sackcloth" (Jer. vi. 26; Isa. lviii. 5; Dan. ix. 3; Esth ...A. V. (Ex. ix. 8, 10) is "piaḦ," which appears to mean "soot" (of a furnace).Symbolical Significance in Mourning. It is not clear what was the precise idea...
HADAD – ...Zech. xii. 11; the context of the verse shows that the mourning of, or at (see below), Hadadrimmon represented the acme of desperate grief. The older exegetes agree in regarding "Hadadrimmon" as denominating a ...one or the other Biblical personage have been generally abandoned by modern scholars. Following Hitzig, it is now held that Zechariah had in mind a public mourning for the god Hadadrimmon, identified with the ...however, was a solar deity; the thunder-god is not believed to have died, and why a lament should have been instituted over him and should have become typical of mourning is one of the unsolved riddles in the way of...
ALLON BACHUTH – ...the burial-place of Deborah as "another weeping," by stating that before Jacob had completed his mourning for Deborah, he received the news of the death of his mother. Scripture does not mention the place of...
ATARAH – ...she brought evil upon him, and was therefore called "the mother of Onam"; that is, "the mother of mourning" ( , "mourner"). On account of this irregular marriage, a...
BERNSTEIN-SINAIEFF, LEOPOLD – ...Reynier, the violinist. One of his masterpieces is "Ezra Mourning." This statue, in plaster, became the property of the state in 1892, and was given to the museum at Sens; in 1897 it was reproduced in marble. At the...
CUTTINGS – ...28). From the context of these passages it is plain that some connection obtained between the practise so prohibited and the customs of mourning. In the days of Jeremiah such cuttings in the flesh seem to have ...been the prevalent method of manifesting grief at the death of kindred. The custom is anything but offensive to the prophet; for he mentions (Jer. xvi. 6) the impossibility of mourning for the dead in the usual ...way as one of the dire penalties awaiting the disobedient people. Other passages confirm the prevalence of this custom as a demonstration of grief and mourning (ib. xli. 5, xlvii. 5). From Biblical and...
JANUARIUS – ...twelve sons dukes, eparchi, and leaders of the army.' He then cast himself upon his sword and died; and hence the first of January was called 'Calendæ Januarii,' and the following day was made a day of mourning...
FRANKFURTER, SIMON BEN ISRAEL – ...the sick and the mourning, the first part in Hebrew under the title "Dine Semaḥot," the second in Judæo-German with the title "Alle Dinim von Freuden" (Amsterdam, 1703). It was republished by Moses Frankfurter...
FRIEDLÄNDER, JOSEPH ABRAHAM – ...mourning customs; and declared, in his responsum on "Die Verträglichkeit der Freien Forschung mit dem Rabbineramte," that the dicta of the Mishnah and the Talmud are not binding for all time. He published "Shoresh...
POLLAK, KAIM – ...1896); Gabriel Schlossberger's "Petaḥ Teshubah" (Presburg, 1898); "Josephinische Aktenstücke über Alt-Ofen" (Vienna, 1902); and "Die Erinnerung an die Vorfahren" (ib. 1902), a history of mourning customs...
SPITZ, ABRAHAM (NAPHTALI HIRSCH) BEN MOSES HA-LEVI – ...commentary during the year of mourning. An approbation by him of the ritualistic work "Maginne Ereẓ" was printed in the edition of that work (Dyhernfurth, 1692)Bibliography:
STRELISKER, MORDECAI BEN DAVID – ...Zolkiev, 1835), an elegy on the death of Emperor Francis I. of Austria, sung during a mourning ceremony held in the old Brody synagogue; "Zeker 'Olam" (Lemberg, 1849), a biography and an elegy of his father; and...
ANCESTOR WORSHIP – ...ancestors.III. Mourning Customs: Several of these seem to be the same as those used in divine worship. Thus, to tear the clothes and to put ashes upon the head (II Sam. i. 11) are customs also employed in ...mourning (Jer. xvi. 6) and a solemn sign of the end of the Nazarite's vow (Num. vi. 18). To go barefoot (Micah, i. 8) is a sign both of mourning and of recognition of the divine presence (Ex. iii. 5); fasting both a ...manifestation of mourning (II Sam. i. 12, iii. 35) and an act of divine worship. The assumption of the school of Stade is that these customs, originally signs of worship of ancestors, were afterward, by the Jahvistic...
ARNOLD OF CÎTEAUX – ...therein in a wondrous way." The flourishing and cultured Jewish congregation of Béziers was almost exterminated; two hundred persons lost their lives, and a great many others were taken captive. "The year of mourning ...is the name by which that year is designated in the Jewish chronicles; the Hebrew word for "mourning" having appropriately the numerical value of the date ( =69= 4969...
SACKCLOTH – ...Term originally denoting a coarsely woven fabric, usually made of goat's hair. It afterward came to mean also a garment made from such cloth, which was chiefly worn as a token of mourning by the Israelites ...Israelites. In historic times it came to be worn for religious purposes only, on extraordinary occasions, or at mourning ceremonies. It is natural that, under certain circumstances, the Prophets also should have worn...
MONTH – ...months from the 17th of the second to the 17th of the seventh month (Gen. vii. 11, 24; viii. 4); and the mourning period, reckoned as a full month in Deut. xxi. 13, is elsewhere fixed at thirty days. That twelve ...month of the birth of the Patriarchs; Ṭebet, as the month of marriages (Meg. 13a); Nisan, as the month of coronations (Shab. 87b); Adar, as that of rejoicing; and Ab as the month of mourning (Ta'an. 26b, 29a). In...