PIUS IV. (Gian Angelo Medici):
Pope from 1559 to 1565. He was a Milanese of humble origin. and became cardinal under Paul III., through the latter's relations with Gian's brother Giangiacomo, who had made himself master of Sienna. Gian, who enjoyed the pope's confidence, was clever, good-natured, condescending, somewhat worldly-minded, and in every way a complete contrast to the fanatical Paul IV., after whose death he succeeded to the papacy. This contrast appeared in the severity with which he dealt with Paul's favorites. Although he did not favor the Inquisition, he did not dare attack it. He convened the Council of Trent for the third time, and succeeded in having it brought to a satisfactory termination through the ability of the president of his choice, Marone.
The Jews breathed more freely under Pius. It was due to his intervention that Emperor Ferdinand canceled the edict of expulsion which had been issued against the Bohemian Jews. He bettered the condition of the Jews in Rome and in the Pontifical States by changing and in part revoking the restrictions imposed by Paul IV., and by granting them the following privileges: to lay aside the Jews' badge when traveling, if they remained only for one day in any place; to enlarge the ghetto, and to open shops outside of it; and to acquire real estate beyond the ghetto limits to the value of 1,500 gold ducats. The Jus Gazaka or Gazaga, of later date, rests upon a decree to prevent the increase of rent in the ghetto.
Pius ordered the restoration of account-books and communal records which had been confiscated, and pardoned all the trespasses committed by the Roman Jews against Paul's decrees except murder, counterfeiting, mockery of Christianity, and lese-majesty. He even granted the Jews permission to print the Talmud, though under a different name. His successor, Pius V., followed in Paul IV.'s footsteps.
- Grätz, Gesch. ix. 393;
- Joseph ha-Kohen, 'Emeḳ ha-Baka, pp. 124 et seq.;
- David Gans, Ẓemaḥ Dawid for the year 1559;
- Ranke, Gesch. der Päpste, i. 205 et seq.;
- Stern, Urkundliche Beiträge, p. 137;
- Vogelstein and Rieger, Gesch. der Juden in Rom, ii. 160 et seq.;
- Zunz, in Geiger's Wiss. Zeit. Jüd. Theol. v. 40.