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PLANTS.

—In the Bible:

The following names of plants and plant materials are found in the Old Testament:

[The plant-names in this table follow the order of the Hebrew alphabet, but are transliterated according to the system adopted by The Jewish Encyclopedia.]
Hebrew Name.Botanical Name.Popular Name.
א
EbehCyperus Papyrus, Linn. (?)Papyrus (?).
Abaṭṭiḥim (plural).Citrullus vulgaris, SchradWatermelon.
Abiyyonahfruit of Capparis spinosa, Linn.Thorny caper.
EgozJuglans regia, LinnWalnut.
Agam, agmonJuncus, Arundo, Phragmites.Rush, reed
Ahalim, ahalot (pl.).Aquilaria Agallocha, Roxb. (Gildemeister and Hoffmann, "Die Aetherischen Ocle," p. 645, note).Alocs-wood.
OrotEruca sativa, Lam. (?)Eruca.
EzobOriganum Maru, LinnWild marjoram.
Aḥu, gomeCyperus Papyrus, LinnPapyrus.
AṭadLycium europæum, LinnBox-thorn.
Elah (see ẓori)Pistacia Terebinthus, var. Palstina, æEngl.Terebinth.
Allah, allonQuercusOak.
Algummim, almuggim (pl.)................................Sandalwood (?).
ErezCedrus LibaniCedar of Lebanon.
Orena conifer, Pinus or of AbiesPine or flr.
EshelTamarix Syriaca, Boiss., or Tamarix articulata, Vahl.Tamarisk.
ב
Bo'shah...............................Stinkweed (?).
Bedolaḥgum of the Balsamodendron Mukul, Hooker.
Boṭnim (pl.)fruit of Pistacia vera, LinnPistachio.
Beka'immulberryIn the Mishnah a sort of fruit.
Beẓalim (pl.)Allium Cepa, LinnOnion.
BarḳanimPhæopappus scoparius, SiebPhæopappus.
Berosh, berotAbies Cilicica Ant. and KyCilician spruce.
Boritvegetable lye of Mesembryanthemum Salicornia, Aizoon, etc.
Basam, bosemBalsamodendron Opobalsamum, Kunth.
Beternot a plant, but erroneously identified by Wellhausen and Kautzsch with Malabathrum.
נ
GadCoriandrum sativum, LinnCoriander.
Galgal(prototype) Plantago Cretica, Linn., Gundelia Tournefortii, Linn., Centaurea myriocephala, Schrad., and others (Fonck. "Streifzüge etc., p. 87; Kerner, "Pfianzenleben," ii. 787).rolling balls of dry weeds, "witch-balls," as explained by Bar Hebræus on Ps. ixxxiii. 14.
Gome (see aḥu).
GefenVitis vinifera, LinnGrape-vine.
Gefen sadeh (see Paḳḳu'ot).
GoferCupressusCypress.
ד
Duda'im (pl.)Mandragora officinarum, Linn.Mandrake.
DoḥanAndropogon Sorghum, LinnBread, durra.
Dardara thistle, especially Centaurea Calcitrapa, Linn., and others.Star-thistle.
ה
Hobnim...............................Ebony.
HadasMyrtus communis, LinnMyrtle.
ז
ZayitOlea Europæa, LinnOlive.
ת
ḤabaẓẓeletColchicum, especially Colchicum Steveni, Kunth.Meadowsaffron.
ḤedeḳSolanum coagulans, ForskNightshade.
Ḥoaḥprohably Echinops viscosus, DC.; perhaps Acanthus Syriacus, Linn.According to tradition, a fodder for camels.
ḤiṭṭahTriticum vulgare, LinnCultivated wheat.
Ḥelbenahresin of Ferula galbaniflua, Boiss and Buhse.
ḤallamutAnchusa, LinnBugloss or alkanet.
ḤaẓirAllium Porrum, Linn.Leek.
ḤarulLathyrus, LinnVetchling.
Yiẓharfigurative for "zayit"Olive.
כ
KammonCuminum Cyminum, LinnCumin.
KussemetTriticum Spelta, LinnSpelt.
KoferLawsonia alba, LamHenna.
Karkomroot of Curcuma longa, Linn. (sic).Turmeric.
ל
LibnehPopulus alba, LinnWhite poplar.
Lebonahfrom Boswellia Carteria, Birdwood, and others.Frankincense
Luz (see shaḳed).
Loṭmastic (sic) of Pistacia Lentiscus Linn.
La'anahArtemisia monosperma, Delile, Artemisia Judaica, Linn.Absinth.
ם
MalluaḥAtriplex Halimus, LinnOrach.
Morespecially from Commiphora Abyssinica, Engl., and Commiphora Schimperi. Engl. (according to Holmes, perhaps Commiphora Kataf, Engl., Balsamodendron Kafal, Kunth; see Gildemeister and Hoffmann, l.c. p. 639; Schweinfurth, "Berichte der Deutschen Pharmacologischen Gesellschaft." iii. 237, cited by Gildemeister and Hoffmann, l.c. p. 637).Myrrh.
נ
Nahalolim (pl.).according to Saadia, Prosopis Stephaniana, Willd.
Naḥal (see tamar).
Naṭafresin of Styrax officinalis, Linn.Storax.
Nekottragacanth of Astragalus gummifer, Labill., and others.Varieties of astragalus.
Na'aẓuẓa prickly plant, which can not be identified with certainty.Alhagi (?).
NerdNardostachys Jatamansi, DC.Spikenard.
ס
SufJuncusRush.
SirPoterium spinosum, Linn (?)Thorny burnet; perhaps, also, other thornbushes.
Sillon (pl. sallonim)................................Thorn, thornbush.
SenehRubus sanctus, SchrebBlackberry.
Sirpadaccording to Ibn Janaḥ, Atraphaxis spinosa, Linn.; according to Jerome, Urtica, Linn.Atraphaxis, or nettle.
ע
'Adashim (pl.).Lens esculenta MnchLentil.
'Eẓ; shemenElæagnus hortensis, M. Bieb. (?), Pinus Halepensis, Mill. (?).Pine
'ArabahPopulus Euphratica, OlivEuphrates poplar.
'Arot, considered by the LXX. as identical with "aḥu."
'ArmonPlatanus orientalis. LinnPlane-tree.
'Ar'arJuniperus oxycedrus, LinnJuniper.
פ
PolVicia faba, Linn., probably also Vigna Sinensis var. sesquipedalis, Linn.Horse-bean, bean.
PannagPanicum miliaceum, Linn. (?).Millet.
Paḳḳu'ot (pl.)Citrullus Colocynthis (Linn.), Schrad.Bitter cucumber.
PishtahLinum usitatissimum, LinnFlax.
צ
Ẓe'elimZizyphus spina-Christi, LinnChrist's -thorn.
Ẓinnim (pl. ẓ;eninim)...............................Thorn-hedge, thorns.
Ẓafẓ;afahSalix safsaf, ForskWillow.
Ẓori (see elah).resin of Pistacia Terebinthus, var. Palæstina Engl., but, according to Jewish tradition, resin of Commiphora Kataf, Engl. (Balsamodendron Kafal, Kunth).Terebinth.
ק
Ḳiddah, ḳeẓ;i'ah.varieties of Cinnamomum Cassia, Bl.Cassia.
Ḳoẓ;...............................Thorn-bush.
ḲiḳayonRicinus communis, LinnCommon castoroil Plant.
ḲimmosUrtica, Linn (?)Nettle.
ḲanehArundo Donax, Linn., and Phragmitis communis, Trin.Reed.
Ḳeneh bosem and ḳaneh haṭob.Acorus Calamus, LinnCalamus (Gildemeister and Hoffmann, l.c. p. 384).
ḲinnamonCinnamomum Zeylanicum, Breyne.Cinnamonbush.
Ḳeẓ;aḥNigelia sativa, LinnNutmeg-flower.
Ḳishshu'im (pl.)Cucumis Chate, Linn., and Cucumis sativus, Linn.Cucumber.
ר
Roshaccording to Post, Citrullus Colocynthus (Linn.) , Schrad. (see paḳḳu'ot), but this is very doubtful).
RimmonPunica Granatum, LinnPomegranate.
RotemRetama Rætam (Forsk.), Web.Juniper-bush.
Sorah (same as doḥan [?]).
SiahArtemisia, LinnWormwood.
Sikkim (pl.)...............................Brambles.
Se'oraHordeum, LinnBarley.
ShumAllium sativum, LinnGarlic.
Shoshannah, shushan.Lilium candidum, LinnLily.
ShiṭṭahAcacia Nilotica, Del., and others.Acaciá.
Shayit (?).
ShamirPaliurus aculeatus, Linck (?)Garland-thorn.
Shaḳed luzPrunus Amygdalus, Stokes (Amygdalus communis, Linn.).Almond.
ShiḳmahFicus Sycomorus, LinnSycamore.
ת
Te'enahFicus Carica, LinnFig.
Te'asbshurCupressus sempervirens, Linn.Cypress.
Tidharaccording to the Targ., Cornus mas, Linn., or Cornus Australis, Cam.Cornel, dogwood.
Tamar, and possibly also naḥal.Phœnix dactylifern, LinnPalm.
TappuaḥMalus communis, DesfApple.
Tirzah(1) according to Saadia and Ibn Janaḥ, Pinus Halepensis. Mill.; (2) according to the Vulgate, Ilex, either Quercus Ilex, Linn., or Quercus coccifera, Linn.(1) Pine; (2) oak.
—In the Apocrypha:

In the Apocryphal books the following plants and plant-products are mentioned: vine, palm, fig, olive-tree, mulberry-tree (pomegranate), wheat, barley, pumpkin, rush, reed, grass, cedar, cypress, terebinth, mastic, holm-oak, rose, lily, ivy, hedge-thorn, spices, cinnamon, aspalathus, myrrh, galbanum, stacte, and incense. The rose and ivy are mentioned in the Mishnah also; but they do not occur in the Hebrew Old Testament.

The rose-plant of Jericho, mentioned in Ecclus. (Sirach) xxiv. 14, has been identified, through overhasty speculation, with Anastatica Hierochuntica, which, however, is not found in that district. This Anastatica is frequently used by the Christians as a symbol, while the modern Jews have frequently mentioned it in their poetry. The Asteriscus pygmœus, Coss., which grows at Jericho, also has been regarded as the rose of Jericho. The branches of the Anastatica bend inward when the fruit becomes ripe, so that the numerous closed, pear-shaped pods, found at the ends of the branches, seem to be surrounded by a lattice. In the case of the Asteriscus, on the other hand, after the time of ripening it is not the branches, but the top leaves, grouped in rosettes, which close over the fruit (Robinson, "Palästina," ii. 539; Sepp, "Jerusalem und das Heilige Land," i. 610; Post, "Flora of Syria, Palestine, and Sinai," p. 67; Kerner, "Pflanzenleben," ii. 783).

—In Philo and Josephus:

Philo gives no additional information regarding the knowledge of botany possessed by the Jews in antiquity. It is true that he made allegorical use of grass and flowers, wild trees and those that bear fruit, the oak, the palm, and the pomegranate, incense, and the tree of life (Siegfried, "Philo von Alexandria," pp. 185 et seq., Jena, 1875), but he wrote neither on botany nor on agriculture (Meyer, "Gesch. der Botanik," ii. 80). Josephus, on the other hand, deserves special mention, since he was the only author in Jewish antiquity who attempted to describe a plant in exact detail. He says, in his discussion of the head-dress of the high priest ("Ant." iii. 7, § 6): "Out of which [the golden crown] arose a cup of gold like the herb that we call '⋅accharus,' but which is termed 'hyoscyamus' by the Greeks." The form σάκχαρον is the Greek transliteration of the Aramaic "shakruna," which is not mentioned again until it is named in the medical work ascribed to Asaph ben Berechiah. The next description of the plant is given in Hebrew by Azariah dei Rossi ("Me'or 'Enayim," ch. xlix.). Josephus describes it from personal observation and shows a very clear knowledge of the peculiarities of the plant. In describing it he mentions the μήκων, or poppy, for the first time in Jewish literature, as well as the plants εὐζωμον (rocket), ουνίας, and σιδηρίτις. He is likewise the first to refer to the chick-pea in ἐρεβίνθων ("B. J." v. 12, § 2), the vetch ("karshinna"; Vicia Ervilia, Linn.; ὄροβος, ib. v. 10, § 3), the fenugreek (Trigonella Fœnum-Grœcum, Linn.; τῆλις, ib. iii. 7, § 29), the amomum ("Ant." xx. 2, § 3) growing near Carrhæ, and the laurel-wreaths of the Romans (δάφνη, "B. J." vii. 5, § 4).

Plants First Mentioned by Josephus.

The second specifically botanical reference is tothe πήγανον, a rue of extraordinary size growing in the precincts of the palace at Machærus. The rue is mentioned by Josephus ("B. J." vii. 6, § 3) for the first time among Jewish writers, though it occurs also in Luke xi. 42. Later the Greek name appears as a foreign word in the Mishnah. The rue at Machærus was equal to any figtree in height and breadth, and according to tradition it had been standing since the time of Herod; the Jews cut it down when they occupied this fortress. The valley bounding the city on the north, Josephus continues, is called Ba'arah (; Epstein, "MiḲadmoniyyot," p. 108), and produces a marvelous root of the same name. "It is a flaming red, and shines at night." Then follows the popular description of a magic root that can be drawn from the earth only by a dog, which loses its life thereby. Ælian (c. 180) repeats the tale; but a picture in the Vienna manuscript of Dioscorides, made in the fifth century, is the earliest proof that this mysterious root was supposed to be the mandragora or mandrake (Ferdinand Cohn, in "Jahresbericht der Schlesischen Gesellschaft für Vaterländische Cultur," botanical section, 1887, 27, x.; "Verhandlungen der Berliner Anthropologischen Gesellschaft," 17, x. [1891] 730; 19, xii. 749. Instead of a dog, an ass pulls out the root according to Midr. Agada, ed. Buber, on Gen. xlix. 14. On the human form of the mandrake see Ibn Ezra on Cant. vii. 14; Salfeld, "Hohelied," p. 72. The popular belief regarding the mandragora is given in full by Judah Hadassi [1148] in "Eshkol ha-Kofer," 152c; Maimonides, "Moreh," French transl. by Munk, iii. 235; Güdemann, "Gesch." iii. 129; Grünbaum, "Jüdisch-Deutsche Chrestomathie," p. 176).

The Sodom-Apple.

Josephus was also the first to mention the so-called Sodom-apple, Calotropis procera, Willd. (Post, l.c. p. 526), describing it as a fruit exactly resembling edible apples in color, but composed only of ashes, and crumbling in the hand to dust ("B. J." iv. 8, § 4). He speaks highly also of the fruitfulness of Palestine, mentioning particularly the palms ("Ant." iv. 6, § 1; "B. J." i. 6, § 6; iii. 10, § 8; iv. 8, § 2, 3, 4) and balsam at Jericho ("Ant." xiv. 4, § 1; xv. 4, § 2) and Engedi (ib. ix. 1, § 2), as well as the palms at Phasaelis, Archelais (ib. xviii. 2, § 2), and Peræa ("B. J." iii. 3, § 3). The balsam-tree was introduced by the Queen of Sheba, and was afterward planted ("Ant." viii. 6, § 6) and tapped ("B. J." i. 6, § 6). At Jericho the cypress (κύπρος, ib. iv. 8, § 3) and the μυροβάλανος (ib. iv.8, § 3) also grew. In Peræa, furthermore, there were fruitful places where olive-trees, vines, and palms flourished (ib. iii. 3, § 3), but the fruits of Gennesaret surpassed all (ib. iii. 10, § 8, a statement which is confirmed by the Talmud).

Biblical Names Recapitulated by Josephus.

Naturally every recapitulation of Biblical history contains references to all the Biblical plants; and in Josephus references are found to Adam's fig-leaves ("Ant." i. 1, § 4); the olive-leaf of Noah's dove (ib. i. 3, § 5); Noah's vine (ib. i. 6, § 3); Ishmael's fir-tree (ib. i. 12, § 3, ἐλάτη, as LXX. and Josephus render by analogy with ); Abraham's oak, Ogyges (ib. i. 10, § 3); the terebinth standing near Hebron since the creation of the world ("B. J." iv. 9, § 7); Esau's lentil pottage ("Ant." ii. 1, § 1); Reuben's mandrakes (ib. i. 19, § 8); the wheat-sheaf in Joseph's dream (ib. ii. 2, § 2) and the grapes in the visions of the two Egyptians (ib. ii. 5, § 2); Moses' ark of bulrushes (ib. ii. 9, § 4), and the burning bush (βάτος, ib. ii. 12); the manna that was like bdellium and coriander (ib. iii. 1, § 6); the blossoming almond-rod (ib. iv. 4, § 2); the seventy palms (ib. iii. 1, § 3); Rahab's stalks of flax (ib. v. 1, § 2); the trees in Jotham's parable (ib. v. 7, § 2); the cypress and thistle of the parable in II Kings xiv. 9 (ib. ix. 9, § 2); Hiram's cedar-trees (ib. vii. 3, § 2; viii. 2, § 7; 5, § 3; "B. J." v. 5, § 2); the pine-trees, which Josephus says were like the wood of fig-trees (πεύκινα, "Ant." viii. 7, § 1); the lilies and pomegranates on the pillars of the Temple (ib. viii. 3, § 4) and on the golden candlestick (iii. 6, § 7).

Solomon "spoke a parable on every sort of tree, from the hyssop to the cedar" (ib. viii. 2, § 5) and built the Δρυμών (ib. viii. 6, § 5; comp. δρυμός, "oak-coppice," ib. xiv. 13, § 3; "B. J." i. 13, § 2; Boettger, "Topographisch-Historisches Lexicon zu den Schriften des Flavius Josephus," p. 105).

Josephus, as well as the Biblical narrative, mentions apples eaten by Herod ("Ant." xvii. 7; "B. J." i. 33, § 7); fig-trees ("Ant." viii. 7, § 1; "B. J." vii. 6, § 3); pomegranates ("Ant." iii. 7, § 6); cages of sedge (ib. ii. 10, § 2); wheat (ib. xvii. 13, § 3; "B. J." v. 13, § 7); wheat and barley ("Ant." ix. 11, § 2; "B. J." v. 10, § 2); barley alone ("Ant." iii. 10, § 6, v. 6, § 4); and herbs (λαχανεία, "B. J." iv. 9, § 8).

Plants Named in the Legal Code.

In describing the legal code, Josephus recapitu, lates the following Biblical plants: hyssop at various sacrifices ("Ant." ii. 14, § 6; iv. 4, § 6); flax in the priestly robes (ib. iii. 7, § 7); pomegranates, signifying lightning, on the high priest's garments ("B. J." v. 5, § 7); lilies and pomegranates on the golden candle-sticks ("Ant." iii. 6, § 7); cinnamon, myrrh, calamus, and iris ("ḳiddah") in the oil of purification (ib. iii. 8, § 3; Whiston: "cassia"); cinnamon and cassia ("B. J." vi. 8, § 3); the first-fruits of the barley ("Ant." iii. 10, § 5); he likewise cites the precept against sowing a diversity of plants in the vineyard (ib. iv. 8, § 20). In like manner the Biblical metaphor of the broken reed (ib. x. 1, § 2) is repeated.

Josephus is of course acquainted with the citron-apple, mentioned in the Mishnah and forming part of the festival-bush together with the palm-branch, willow, and myrtle, although he calls it vaguely the "Persian apple" (μῆλον τῆς Περσέας), not the "Median" ("Ant." iii. 10, § 4). He is more accurate in designating the fruit itself (κιτρία, ib. xiii. 13, § 1). The golden vine of the Temple is mentioned twice (ib. xiv. 3, § 1; "B. J." v. 5, § 4).

The "Yosippon."

The "Yosippon" (ed. Gagnier, ii. 10, § 70) mentions among the wonders seen by Alexander on his way to India a tree, , which grew until noon, and then disappeared into the earth. In the same work (ii. 11, § 77) the trees of the sun and moon forewarn Alexander of his early death.

—In the New Testament:

The following names of plants may be cited from the New Testament:

New Testament Name.Botanical Name.Popular Name.
ἀγριṳλαιος (opposed to καλλιέλαιος).Olea Europæ, Linn., var. sylvestris.Wild olive of northern Syria.
ἄκανθα..............................Thorn.
ἀλόηAquilaria Agallocha, RoxbAloe.
ἄμπελος (σταϕυλή).............................Vine.
ἄμωμον..............................Amomum.
ἄνηθονAnethum graveolens, LinnDill.
ἄψινθοςArtemisia, LinnWormwood.
βάτοςRubus, LinnBlackberry.
ἐλαίαOlea Europæa, LinnOlive.
ζιζάνιονLolium temulentum, LinnBearded darnel.
ηὀὐοσμονMenthaMint.
θύινος derivative from θυία.Thuja articulata, VahlArbor-vitæ.
κάλαμοςArundo Donax, Linn., and Phragmitis communis, Trin.Reed.
κηράτιουCeratonia Siliqua, LinnSaint-John's-bread, carob.
κιυνάμωμον..............................Cinnamon.
κριθῄHordeum, LinnBarley.
κρινονLilium candidum, LinnLily.
κύμινονCuminum Cyminum, LinnCumin.
λίβανος..............................Frankincense.
λίνονLinum usitatissimum, LinnFlax (used only metaphorically for wick and for linen garments).
μάνναfrom the Tamarix mannifera, Ehrenberg, and Alhagi Maurorum DC.Manna.
νάρδοςNardostachys Jatamansi, DC.Spikenard.
πήγανονRuta, LinnRue.
σίναπιSinapis, LinnMustard.
σῑτος, στάχυςTriticumWheat, grain.
σμύρνα..............................Myrrh.
συκάμινοςMorus nigra, LinnMulberry.
συκομοραίαFicus Sycomorus, LinnSycamore.
συκη, συκον,ὅλυνθοςFicus Carica, LinnFig.
τρίβολοςTribulus terrestris, LinnLand-caltrop.
ὓσσωποςOriganum Maru, LinnWild Marjoram.
ϕοινιξ, βάιονPhœnix dactylifera, LinnPalm.
More general terms are ἄνθος (flower), βοτάνη (herbage), δένδρον (tree), κλημα (branch), λάχανον (vegetable), φρύγανον (brushwood), φυτεία (plant), χλωρός (green), χόρτος (grass).

The following names of plants are found in proper names in the New Testament: the palm (Thamar), the lily (Susanna), the fig (Beth-phage), the narcissus (as the name of the Roman Narcissus); the name of the date has been conjectured to form part of the name of Bethany (Bet-hine). The crown of thorns placed on Jesus may have been composed of the garland-thorn, Paliurus aculeatus, Lam., of the jujube, Zizyphus vulgaris, Lam., or of a variety of hawthorn, the Cratœgus Azarolus, Linn., or the Cratœgus monogyna, Willd.

—In the Pseudepigrapha:

There are few references to plants in the pseudepigrapha, so far as the latter are included in Kautzsch's collection ("Die Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments," Freiburg-im-Breisgau and Leipsic, 1900, cited here as K.). In these references Biblical figures and concepts prevail for the most part. The fertility ("shebaḥ ha-areẓ") which was the glory of Palestine (Deut. viii. 8) is lauded by Aristeas (§ 112; K. ii. 15), who praises the agriculture there. "The land," he says, "is thickly planted with olive-trees, cereals, and pulse, and is rich in vines, honey, fruits, and dates." When Abraham entered Palestine he saw there vines, figs, pomegranates, the "balan" and the "ders" (two varieties of oak, βάλανος and δρῦς), terebinths, olive-trees, cedars, cypress-trees, frankincense-trees (λίβανος), and every tree of the field (Book of Jubilees, xiii. 6; K. ii. 63).

According to the later (Christian) version of the Greek Apocalypse of Baruch (iv.; K. ii. 451), Noah planted the vine only because the wine was destined to become the blood of Jesus; otherwise, the vine from which Adam ate the forbidden fruit would have fallen under a curse. Noah is saved like one grape of a whole cluster, or one sprig in an entire forest (II Esd. ix. 21; K. ii. 384). The vine is also mentioned in the Sibylline Books (iv. 17; K. ii. 201), the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (x. 10; K. ii. 415), and in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (Levi, 2; K. ii. 466), where the Lord becomes to Levi his farm, vine, fruits, gold, and silver. When the Messiah shall come the earth will bring forth its fruit ten thousandfold; and on each vine there will be 1,000 branches; on each branch, 1,000 clusters; and on each cluster, 1,000 grapes; and each grape will yield a "cor" of wine (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxix. 5; K. ii. 423). The Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (xxxvi. 3 et seq.; K. ii. 424 et seq.) contains also a vision of a forest, a vine, and a cedar, and the Book of Jubilees (xiii. 26; K. ii. 65) mentions tithes of seed, wine, and oil.

Fig-leaves are said to grow in paradise, a belief based upon the Biblical account (Apoc. Mosis, § 21; K. ii. 522), while, according to the Ethiopic Apocalypse of Baruch, the figs which Ebed-melech carries remain fresh and unwithered during his sleep of sixty-six years and are taken to Babylon by an eagle (p. 402).

Among other trees and fruits mentioned in the pseudepigrapha are: the olive-tree (Sibyllines, iv. 17; K. ii. 201; Test. Patr., Levi, 8, p. 467; instead of "siaḥ" [Gen. xxi. 15], the Book of Jubilees, xvii. 10; K. ii. 70, reads "olive-tree"), palms (Enoch, xxiv. 4; K. ii. 254), dates of the valley (Jubilees, xxix. 15; K. ii. 90), nut-tree (Enoch, xxix. 2; K. ii. 256; not the almond-tree, which is mentioned shortly afterward, ib. xxx. 3), almonds and terebinth-nuts (Jubilees, xlii. 20; K. ii. 109, following Gen. xliii. 11), aloe-tree (Enoch, xxxi. 2; K. ii. 256), cedar (Test. Patr., Simeon, 6; K. ii. 464). A book sprinkled with oil of cedar to preserve it is described in the Assumption of Moses (i. 17; K. ii. 320); the locust-tree (Enoch, xxxii. 4; K. ii. 256), and, especially, oaks also are mentioned, as in the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (lxxvii. 18; K. ii. 441); they are said to grow at Hebron(Enoch, vi.; K. ii. 414), at Mamre (Jubilees, xiv. 10; K. ii. 65), and in the land of Siehem (Jubilees, xxxi. 2; K. ii. 92); the oak is likewise mentioned in the lament over Deborah (Jubilees, xxxii. 30; K. ii. 96).

Of all the information regarding trees the most interesting is the list of evergreens given in Jubilees (xxi. 12; K. ii. 76), while this class of trees is also alluded to in Enoch (iii.; K. ii. 237) and in the Testament of Levi (ix.; K. ii. 468; Löw, p. 59). Similar catalogues occur in the Talmud and Mishnah, and in the Greek writings on agriculture. The Book of Jubilees mentions the following as appropriate for the altar: cypress, juniper, almond-tree (for which, following Dillmann, "acacia" has been suggested as an emendation), Scotch pine, pine,cedar, Cilician spruce, palm (?), olive-tree, myrtle, laurel, citron (Citrus medica, Risso), juniper (? Ethiopic "arbot," for which Dillmann conjectures "arkot," ἄρκευθος), and balsam.

On account of their beauty the following flowers are mentioned in the pseudepigrapha: lily (Test. Patr., Joseph, 18; K. ii. 502), rose (Test. Patr., Simeon, 6; K. ii. 464; Enoch, lxxxii. 16; K. ii. 287; cvi. 2, 10; K. ii. 308 et seq.: "rubra sicut rosa" and "rubrior rosa": it is also mentioned in the Apocrypha, Mishnah, Targum, and LXX.), and the roselaurel. The oleander seems to be intended by "the field of Ardaf" in II Esd. (ix. 26; K. ii. 385) (the last letter with the variants "s," "d," "t," and "b"). "Harduf" ("hirduf," "hardufni") is a borrowed word even in the Mishnah, and shows, together with the Arabic "diflah," that the Nerium Oleander, Linn., came from Europe, or, more exactly (according to O. Schrader, in Hehn, "Kulturpflanzen," 6th ed., p. 405), from the Spanish west. The plant had reached Greece before the time of Dioscorides and Pliny; and it may have grown wild in Palestine by the end of the first century just as it does at present; it is always found in water-courses, and flourishes from the level of the Ghor to an altitude of 3,280 feet in the mountains (Post, l.c. p. 522). To such a region the seer of II Esdras was bidden to go, there to sustain himself on the flowers of the field. In Sibyllines (v. 46; K. ii. 206, a passage originally heathen) the flower of Nemea, σέλινον (parsley), is mentioned.

As in the Bible narrative, thorns and thistles appeared after the fall of man (Apoc. Mosis, § 24; K. ii. 522), while thorns and prickly briers are mentioned in the Sibyllines (Preface, 24 et seq.; K. ii. 184). The Biblical "duda'im," mentioned in the Testament of Issachar (i.; K. ii. 478), are mandrakes, which grow in the land of Aram, on an elevation, below a ravine. Tithes of the seed are mentioned (Jubilees, xiii. 26; K. ii. 65); while according to Aristeas (§ 145; K. ii. 17), the clean birds eat wheat and pulse. Egypt is mentioned (Sibyllines, iv. 72; K. ii. 202) as producing wheat; and the marrow of wheat, like the Biblical "kilyot ḥiṭṭah" ("kidneys of wheat," Deut. xxxii. 14), is spoken of in Enoch (xcvi. 5; K. ii. 302), while II Esdras (ix. 17; K. ii. 384) declares (R. V.): "Like as the field is, so is also the seed; and as the flowers be, such are the colors also." In the same book (iv. 31 et seq. [R. V.]; K. ii. 357) occurs also an argument "de minore ad maius," found in the Bible likewise: "Ponder now by thyself, how great fruit of wickedness a grain of evil seed hath brought forth. When the ears which are without number shall be sown, how great a floor shall they fill!" (comp. the "ḳal wa-homer" in II Esd. iv. 10, end; K. ii. 355; and see Schwarz, "Der Hermeneutische Syllogismus," p. 82, Vienna, 1901). Lolium (ζιζάνιον) is mentioned in Apoc. Mosis, § 16 (K. ii. 520). Among the spices and condiments, cinnamon is described as obtained from the excrement of the worm which comes from the dung of the phenix (Greek Apoc. Baruch, vi.; K. ii. 453), and is also mentioned in Enoch, xxx. 3, xxxii. 1; K. ii. 256; Apoc. Mosis, § 29; K. ii. 524; Vita Adæ of Evæ, § 43; K. ii. 520. Pepper, spoken of in Enoch (xxxii. 1; K. ii. 25§), is new, although it is met with as early as the Mishnah.

Among other plants mentioned in the pseudepigrapha are: aloe-trees (Enoch, xxxi.; K. ii. 256); balsam (ib. xxx. 2); galbanum (ib.; Jubilees, iii. 27, xvi. 24; K. ii. 45, 69); sweet-calamus and saffron (Apoc. Mosis, l.c.; Vita Adæ et Evæ, l.c.); costus-root (Jubilees, xvi. 24; K. ii. 69); ladanum, and similar almonds (Enoch, xxxi. 2; K. ii. 256); gum-mastic (Enoch, xxxii. 1, xxx. 1; K. ii. 256; myrrh (Enoch, xxix. 2; K. ii. 256; Jubilees, xvi. 24; K. ii. 69); nard (Jubilees, iii. 27, xvi. 24; K. ii. 45, 69; Enoch, xxxii. 1; K. ii. 256; Apoc. Mosis, § 29; K. ii. 524); nectar, called also balsam and galbanum (Enoch, xxxi. 1; K. ii. 256); storax (Jubilees, iii. 27, xvi. 24; K. ii. 45, 69); incense (Enoch, xxix. 2; K. ii. 256; Jubilees, iii. 27, xvi. 24; K. ii. 45, 69; Test. Patr., Levi, 8; K. ii. 467).

Aristeas (§ 63; K. ii. 10) describes pictorial representations of plants as decorations on state furniture, including garlands of fruit, grapes, cars of corn, dates, apples, olives, pomegranates, etc. He speaks also (§ 68, p. 11) of the legs of a table which were topped with lilies, and (§ 70; K. ii. 11) of ivy, acanthus, and vines, as well as of lilies (§ 75; K. ii. 11), and of vine-branches, laurel, myrtle, and olives (§ 79; K. ii. 12). Plant-metaphors taken from the Bible and applied to Israel and Palestine are: vines and lilies (II Esd. v. 23 et seq.; K. ii. 361) and the vineyard (Greek Apoc. Baruch, i.; K. ii. 448).

In poetic and haggadic interpretations wood shall bleed as one of the signs of the approaching end of the world (II Esd. v. 5; K. ii. 359; Barnabas, xii. 1), and the trees shall war against the sea (II Esd. iv. 13 et seq.; K. ii. 356). At the last day many of mankind must perish, even as the seed sown by the husbandman ripens only in part (ib. viii. 41; K. ii. 381), although every fruit brings honor and glory to God (Enoch, v. 2; K. ii. 237). In the Greek Apocalypse of Baruch (xii.; K. ii. 456) angels bear baskets of flowers which represent the virtues of the righteous. In the sacred rites, palm-branches, fruits of trees (citrons), and osier-twigs are mentioned (Jubilees, xvi. 31; K. ii. 70).

At the commandment of God on the third day of Creation, "immediately there came forth great and innumerable fruits, and manifold pleasures for the taste, and flowers of inimitable color, and odors of most exquisite smell" (II Esd. vi. 44, R. V.; K. ii. 367); and the beauty of the trees in paradise is also emphasized (ib. vi. 3; K. ii. 364). The tree of knowledge and the tree of life appealed powerfully to the fancy of the pseudepigraphic writers. The former, from which Adam ate, is supposed, on the basis of other Jewish traditions, to have been either the vine (Greek Apoc. Baruch, iv.; K. ii. 451) or the fig (Apoc. Mosis, § 21; K. ii. 522). The Book of Enoch (xxxii. 3 et seq.; K. ii. 256) describes the tree of knowledge thus: "Its shape is like the pine-tree; its foliage like the locust-tree; its fruit like the grape." The tree of life is planted for the pious (II Esd. viii. 52; K. ii. 382), and is described in Enoch (xxiv. 3 et seq.; K. ii. 254) as fragrant and with unfading leaves and blossoms and imperishable wood, while as in the accounts in the Old and the New Testament its fruit, which is like that of the palm, gives eternal life (Enoch; II Esd. l.c.; Test. Patr., Levi, 18; K. ii. 471, reads "tree" instead of "wood").It is the tree of paradise, and from it flows the healing oil, the oil of life, the oil of mercy (Vita Adæ et Evæ, §§ 36, 41; Apoc. Mosis, § 9; K. ii. 518, 520).

—In the Mishnah and Talmud:

The Mishnah has preserved only about 230 names of plants, of which about 180 are old Hebrew and forty are derived from Greek terms. In the Talmudic literature of the post-Mishnaic period 100 names of plants are found in the Jerusalem Talmud and 175 in the Babylonian; about twenty of these names are of Greek origin. In the Mishnah, Talmud, Midrash, and Targum the following plants are mentioned as indigenous to Palestine and Babylon:

[Abbreviations: B. = Babylonian Talmud; Y. = Jerusalem Talmud; M. = Mishnah; Midr. = Midrash; T. = Targum. In the following table the name of the botanical family is printed in small capitals.]
Name in Mishnah, Talmud, etc.Botanical Name.Popular Name.
Alismaceæ.
Alisma Plantago aquatica, Linn.Water-plantain.
Amaryllidaceæ.
, B.Narcissus pocticus, Linn., Narcissus Tazetta, Linn., and varieties.Narcissus.
Ampelidaceæ.
, Bible, M.: , , M., Y., B.Vitis vinifera, LinnGrape-vine.
Anacardiaceæ.
, M.Rhus Coriaria, LinnSumach
, Bible, M.: , T., Y., B.Pistacia Terebinthus, var. Palæstina, Engl.Terebinth.
, M., BiblePistacia vera, LinnPistachio-nut.
, M.Pistacia vera, LinnPistachio.
, M.: , M., Tresin of . M., Pistacia Lentiscus, Linn.Mastic.
Apocynaceæ.
, B.; , M.Nerium Oleander, Linn.Oleander.
Araliaceæ.
, M., Y.Hedera Helix, LinnIvy.
Aroideæ.
, M.Arum orientale, M. Bieb
M.Arum Palæstinum, Boiss.Arum.
, M., Y.Colocasia antiquorum, Schott.Cocoa-root.
Aurantiaceæ.
, M.; , T., Y., B.Citrus medica, ReissCitron.
Berberidaceæ.
, M.; (?), Y.Leontice Leontopetalum, Linn.Lion's-leaf.
Boraginaceæ.
, M.,; , , B.Cordia Myxa, LinnCordia.
, Bible, M.Anchusa officinalis, Linn.Bugloss.
Capparidaceæ.
, M.; , B. (, bud; , B., blossom; , Bible, M.; , B., fruit).Capparis spinosa, Linn., and varieties.Thorny caper.
Chenopodiaceæ.
, M., Y.Blitum virgatum, Linn.Blite.
Chenopodium, LinnGoosefoot.
, M.; , B.Beta vulgaris, LinnBeet.
, M.; , , Y.Atriplex Tataricum, Linn., Atriplex Halimus Linn.Orach.
, B.Salicornia herbacea, Linn.Glasswort (see also under Ficoidex).
, M., B.Salsola, LinnSaltwort.
Cistaceæ.
, B.Cistus creticus, Linn., Cistus ladaniferus, Linn., and others.Ladanum bush, rockrose.
Compositeæ.
, B.Matricaria Chamomilla, Linn., and Matricaria aurea.Feverfew.
, B.Artemisia vulgaris, Linn.Wormwood.
, Bible: , Y., B.;, T.Artemisia monosperma, Del., and Artemisia Judaica, LinnWormwood.
, M., T., B.Echinops spinosus, Linn., or Echinops viscosus, DC.Echinops (?).
M., Y., B., Midr.; B. (not , despite Kohut "Aruch Completum." s.v.) ( M.?)Cynara Scolymus, Linn.Artichoke.
, M., T., MidrCynara Syrica, Boiss., and Cynara Cardunculus, Linn.Cardoon.
, Bible, M., T., Midr.; , B.Centaurea Calcitrapa, Linn.Star-thistle.
, M.: , T., Y.; , B.........................Seed of safilower.
Carthamus tinctorius, Linn.Safilower saffron.
, M.; , , Y.; , B.Cichorium Endivia, Linn.Chicory.
, M.; , Y.Cichorium divaricatum, Schousb.Chicory.
(, M.) , B.Picris Sprengeriana (Linn.), Poir., or Taraxacum, Juss.Picris or daudelion.
, M.; , Y., B., Midr.Lactuca Scariola. varsativa (Linn.), Boiss.Lettuce.
, M.Lactuca saligna, Linn. (?).Willow-lettuce.
Coniferæ.
, T., B.; (?), B.Cupressus sempervirens, Linn.Cypress.
, M.; , B.fruit of Pinus pinea, Linn.Pine.
, Bible, M.; , M.; , Y.Pinus Halepensis, Mill.Aleppo pine.
, Bible, M., B.; , , , B.Cedrus LibaniCedar of Lebanon.
, Bible, M., T., Y., B.; , B.; , Midr.Abies Cilicica, Ant. and ky.Cilician spruce.
Convolulaceæ.
, M., B., , B.Cuscuta, LinnDodder.
Cornaceæ.
, T., MidrCornus mas, Linn., and Cornus Australis, Cam.Cornel, dogwood.
Cruciferæ.
, M., B.; , B.Brassica Rapa, LinnTurnip.
, M., Y., B.Brassica oleracea, Linn.Cabbage.
, M., B.Sinapis alba, Linn., and Sinapis juncea, Linn.Mustard.
, M.Brassica nigra (Linn.), Koch, or Sinapis arvensis, Linn.; Sinapis arvensis, var. turgida (Del.), Asch. and Schweinf., and var. Allionil (Jacqu.), Asch. and Schweinf.Wild mustard.
, M.; , Y.Brassica oleracea, var. botrytis, Linn.Cauliflower.
, M., B.Eruca sativa, Lam.Eruca, wild and cultivated.
, M.; , B.; , Y.Lepidium sativum, Linn.Pepperwort (?).
, M.; , B.; , Y.Lepidium Chalepense Linn., or Erucaria Aleppica, Gaertn. (?).Pepperwort.
, M.Iberis (Iberis Jordani, Boiss., Iberis Taurica, DC., Iberis odorata, Linn.).Candytuft.
, M.Isatis tinctoria, LinnDyer's-woad.
, M.; , Y., B.; , B.Raphanus sativus, Linn.Radish (two varieties)
Cryptogamia.
, M.; , Y.Equisetum, LinnScouring- rush, horsetail.
, M.Ceterach officinarum, Willd.Miltwaste (?).
, B.Pteris aquilina, LinnBrake.
, M.; , Y. (?).Adiantum Capillus-Veneris, Linn.Maidenhair (but see Mentha Pulegium, Linn., pennyroyal, under Labiatæ).
, M., Y.Scolopendrium vulgare, Sm.Hart's-tongue.
, M.RoccelLa tinctoria, Achar.Litmus.
B.Lecanora or Sphærothalliaesculenta, Nees.Manna-lichen.
,(pl.), M.,Y.; , B.FungusFungus.
, M.; , Y.; , B.TuberTruffic.
Cucurbitaceæ.
, Bible, M.; (pl.), T.; , B.Cucumis Chate, Linn., and Cucumis sativus, Linn.Cucumber.
, M., T., Y., B., Midr.Cucumis Melo, LinnMuskmelon.
, Bible, M.Citrullus vulgaris, Schrad.Watermelon.
, Bible, M.Citrullus Colocynthis (Linn.), Schrad.Colocynth.
, M.; , , B.Lagenaria vulgaris, Ser.Gourd.
, M., Y.Luffa cylindrica (Linn.), Roem., or Luffa Egyptiaca, Mill. (?).Washinggourd.
Echallium Elaterium, Rich.Squirting cucumber.
Cupuliferæ.
, M.; , Y.Corylus Aveliana, Linn.Hazel.
, T., Y., B.; (pl.), Midr. (Biblical proper name ).........................Acorn.
, M.; , B.; (?), M.Quercus coceifera, Linn., and varieties Quercus Lusitanica, Lam., Quercus Cerris, Linn., etc.Turkey oak, etc.
Cyperaceæ.
, Bible; , M.; , M., T., B.Cyperus Papyrus, Linn., and others.Papyrus.
, Y. (Palestinian Midr.).Cyperus esculentus, Linn. (and Cyperus longus, Linn., Cyperus capitatus, Vent.).Galingale.
(pl.), T., B., Midr.Cyperus rotundus, Linn.Galingale.
Euphorbiaceæ.
, M., T., B. (. M. ?); , Y., Midr.Buxus longifolia, Boiss.Box.
, M.; , B.Ricinus communis, Linn.Castor-oil plant.
Ficoideæ.
, Bible, M.; , B.; , M. (?).Mesembryanthemum, Linn., or Aizoon, Linn. (? comp. Sallcornia, Linn.).Fig-marigold, ice-plant.
Graminaceæ.
(pl.), M.; (?), Bible.Panicum miliaceum, Linn.Panic.
, M., Y., B.Oryza sativa, LinnRice.
, Bible, M. ( ?, Bible, Y.).Andropogon Sorghum, Linn.Durra, guineagrass.
, B.Andropogon Schoenanthus, Linn.Beard-grass.
, M.AvenaOats.
, M.; , B. (Identical with , M., Y., B., Midr. ?).Cynodon Dactylon, Linn.Bermudagrass, scutchgrass.
, Bible, M,; , Y., B.; , T.Arundo Donax, Linn., or Phragmites communis, Trin.Persian reed.
, M.Eragrostis cynosuroldes (Retz.), Roem. and Sch.
, M., Midr.Lolium temulentum, Linn.Bearded darnel, tares.
, Bible, M., T., Y., B., Midr.Triticum vulgare, Linn.Wheat.
, Bible; , M.; , T., B.; , Y.Triticum Spelta, Linn.Spelt.
, M.; , B.Ægllops, Linn. (?)Goat-grass.
, Bible, M.; , T., Y.Hordeum distychum and Hordeum vulgare, Linn.Barley.
, M.; , B.Hordeum bulbosum, Linn. (?).
Granateæ.
, Bible, M.; , T., B., Midr.; , B.Punica Granatum, Linn.Pomegranate.
Hypericineæ.
, B. (?)Hypericum, LinnSt. John's- wort.
Iridaceæ.
, M., Y.Iris Palæstina, Baker, Iris. pseudacorus, Linn., and others.Iris.
, M., Y., B.; , T.Crocus sativus, Linn.Crocus.
Jasminaceæ.
, B.Jasminum officinale, Linn.Jasmine.
Juglandaceæ.
, Bible, M.; , B.Juglans regia, Linn.Walnut.
Juncaceæ.
, M., B.; , M.; , B.; (, M.).Juncus or CyperusReed or sedge.
Labiatæ.
, M.Lavandula Stœchas, Linn.Lavender (?).
, M.; (?), Y.Menthasylvestris, Linn., and others.Mint.
, M.; , B.Mentha Pulegium, Linn.Pennyroyal.
, Bible, M.; , , B.Origanum Maru, Linn.Marjoram.
, M.; , Y., B.; , B.Thymus, Linn., and Satureia, Linn.Savory.
, M., Y., B.Calamintha, MoenchCalamint.
Lauraceæ.
, Bible, M. ?; , , B.Lanrus nobilis, Linn. (?)Laurel, baytree.
Leguminosæ.
, M., Y., B., Midr.Lupinus Termis, Forsk.Lupine.
, M.Lupinus Palæstinus, Boiss., and Lupinus pilosus, Linn.Lupine.
, T. (, Bible).Retama Raetam, (Forsk.), Web.Juniper-bush.
, M.; , , B.Trigonella Fænumgræcum, Linn.Fenugreek.
(pl.), M.; , Y., B.; , B.Melilotus, TournSweet clover, honey-lotus.
(?)Melilotus (?), Medicago (?), Trigonelia (?), Trifolium (?).
, B.Medicago sativa, Linn., or Trifolium, Linn. (?).Medic, or clover, trefoil.
, B.Glycyrrhiza glabra, Linn.Licorice.
, M.; , T., B. (Bible, , ?).Alhagi Maurorum, DC.Alhagi.
, M.; , B.Cicer arietinum, Linn.Chick-pea.
, M., Y.Vicia sativa, Linn.Vetch.
, M.; , B.Vicia Ervilia, Linn.Vetch.
, M. (Bible); , T., B.Lens esculenta, Moench.Lentil.
, Bible, M., T., Y.Vigna Sinensis (Linn.), Endl. (not Phascolus vulgaris, Linn.).Bean.
, M.; (?), Y.Vicia Faba, Linn. (Faba vulgaris, Moench.).Straight bean.
, , M.; , Y.; .........................Four in determinate varieties of beans.
, (?), M.; , (variants ).........................Three indeterminate varieties of pulse, probably = Syriac , a variety of lupine.
, M.; , Y.Phascolus Mungo, Linn.Hairy-podded kidney-bean.
, Bible)Lathyrus, Linn.Vetchling.
, M.; , Y.Lathyrus Cicera, Linn.Vetchling.
, M.; , Y.Lathyrus sativus, Linn.Everlasting pea.
, B.Dolichos Lablab, Linn.Lablab.
, M.Cassia obovata, Collad. or Cassia acutifolia, Del. (?)Aleppo senna, or senna.
, M., Y. B.Ceratonia Siliqua, Linn.Saint-John's- bread, carob.
(?)Prosopis Stephaniana (Willd.), Spreng.(see below).
, Bible, from which comes , B.Two varieties of Acacia, Willd.Acacia.
, B.sap of Acacia Nitotica, Del.Acacia.
Lemnaceæ.
, M.; , Y. (, B. ?).Lemna minor, Linn.Duckweed, duckmeat.
Liliaceæ.
, M.; , B.; , Y.Aloe vera, Linn.Aloe.
, Bible, M.; , B.Allium Cepa, Linn.Onion.
, M. (?)Allium Ascalonicum, Linn.Shallot.
, M.........................Summer onions.
, M.; , Y.Allium Cepa, Linn.Onion.
, M.; (, Bible); , M., T., Y., B.; , T., Y., B.Allium Porrum, Linn.Leek.
, M.Allium curtum, Boiss, and Gaill. (?).
, Bible, M.; , M.; , Y.Allium sativum, Linn.Garlic.
, M.........................Onion.
, M.Ornithogalum, Linn.Star-of-Bethlehem.
, Bible, M., T.; , Y.Lilium candidum, Linn.Lily.
, M.Fritillaria, Linn.Fritillary (?).
Lineæ.
, M,; , T., Y., B.Linum usitatissimum, Linn.Flax.
Loranthaceæ.
.Loranthus Acaciæ, Zuce.Mistietoe.
Lythraceæ.
, Bible, M.; (?), M.Lawsonia alba, Linn.Henna.
Malvaceæ.
, B.Malva rotundifolia, Linn.Common mallow and others.
, M., (?), M.; , Y., B.; , B.Gossyplum herbaceum, Linn.Cotton-plant.
Myrtaceæ.
, Bible, M.; , T., B.Myrtus communis, Linn.Myrtle.
, M.; , Y. (?)Nelumbium speciosum, Willd.Lotus.
Oleaceæ.
, M.Fraxinus Ornus, Linn.Ash.
, Bible, M., T., Y., B., Midr.Olea Europæa, Linn.Olive.
Palmaceæ.
, Bible, M.; , M., T., Y., B.Phoenix dactylifera, Linn.Date-palm.
........................Young palms.
, M.; , B.........................A variety of palm.
Papaveraceæ.
, B.Papaver Rhæcus, Linn.Corn-poppy.
, Y.opium from Papaver somniferum, Linn., var. glabrum, Boiss.Common poppy.
, M.Glaucium corniculatum, Linn.Horn-poppy.
Platanaceæ.
, Bible; , T., Y., B.Platanus orientalls, Linn.Oriental planetree.
Polygonaceæ.
, M.; , , B.Polygonum aviculare, Linn., or Polygonum equisetiforine, Sibth, and Sm.Knot-grass.
Portulacaceæ.
, M.; , Y., B.Portulaca oleracea, Linn.Purslane.
Primulaceæ.
, M.Cyclamen Coum, Mill., and Cyclamen latifolium, S. et. S. (?)Round-leaved cyclamen.
Ranunculaceæ.
, M.; , B.Ranunculus sceleratus, Linn., and other species.Crowfoot, buttercup.
, BibleNigelia sativa, Linn.Nutmeg-flower.
Resedaceæ.
, M. (?)Luteola tinctoria, Web., Reseda luteola, Linn.Dyer's- weed (?).
Rhamnaceæ.
(pl.), M.; , B.Zizyphus lotus, Lam., and Zizyphus spina- Christi, Linn.Jujube, and christ's- thorn.
, M., Y.; , B.Zizyphus vulgaris, Lam.Common jujube.
Rosaceæ.
, Bible, M., T.; , B.Amygdalus communis, Linn.Almond.
, M., Y.Persica vulgaris, Mill.Peach.
, M.; , M. (?); , Y.; , B. (?).Prunus domestica, Linn.Plum.
, Bible, M.; , , T., Y., B.Rubus sanctus, Schreb., or Rubus discolor, Willd, and Nees.Blackberry.
, M., T., Y., B.Rosa, Linn.Rose.
, M.Pyrus communis, Linn.Pear.
, M. (Y.)Pyrus Syriaca, Boiss. (?)
, Bible, M.; , T., Midr.; (), , M.; , B.Malus communis, Desf.Apple.
, M.; , Y.Cydonia vulgaris, Willd.Quince.
, B.Sorbus, Linn.Service-tree.
, M. [, ].Mespilus Germanica, Linn.Medlar.
, M.; , B.Cratregus Azarolus, Linn.Hawthorn.
Rudiaceæ.
, M.; , B.Rubia tinctorum, Linn.Madder.
Rutaceæ.
, M.; (?), , B.Ruta graveolens, Linn., and Ruta Chalepensis, Linn., and variety bracteosa, Boiss.Rue, and Aleppo rue.
, M., identical with , B. (?).Peganum Harmain, Linn.Harmel, Syrian rue or a variety of mullein (Scrophulariaceæ).
Salicaceæ.
, Bible, M.Salix Safsaf. Forsk., or Salix alba, Linn.Willow, or white willow.
, B.Salix (nigricans, Fries. ?)Black willow.
, Bible, M.; , , B.Populus Euphratica, Oliv.Euphrates poplar (, osler, according to Hal Gaon, Salix viminatis, Linn. [?]).
Scrophulariaceæ.
........................Verbascum, Linn.Mullein (see Peganum Harmala, Linn., under Rutaceæ).
Sesamaceæ.
, M.; , T., B.Sesamum Indicum, Linn.Sesame.
Solanaceæ.
, Bible, M. (T., Y., B.)Solanum coagulans, Forsk.Nightshade.
, B.Solanum nigrum, Linn.Nightshade (?).
, Bible, , T.Lycium Europæum, Linn.Box-thorn.
, Bible; , T.; , B.Mandragora officinarum, Linn.Mandrake.
Tamariscineæ.
(, Bible) , B.Tamarix articulata, Vahl, and others.Tamarisk.
Tiliaceæ.
, Y.fiber of Corchorus, Linn.Corchorus.
Umbelliferæ.
, M.Eryngium Creticum, Lam.Button snakeroot.
, M., Y., B.; , Bible.Coriandrum sativum, Linn.Coriander.
Bifora testiculata., DC. (?)
Coriandrum tordylioldes, Boiss. (?)
, M., Y., B.Apium graveolens, Linn.Celery.
, M.; , Y.Petroselinum sativum, Hoffm.Parsley.
, M.; , B.Ammi majus, Linn., Ammi copticum, Linn., and Ammi Visnaga, Linn.Bullwort, bishop's-weed. Spanish toothhpick.
, B.; , M. (?).Carum Carui Linn.Caraway.
, M.; , Y.; , M. (?).Foeniculum officinale, All.Fennel.
, M.; , B. (?).A variety of Ferula.Fennel.
, M.Anethum graveolens, Linn.Dill.
, M., Y.Daucus Carota, Linn.Carrot.
, Bible, M., T., B.Cuminum Cyminum, Linn.Cumin.
Urticaceæ.
, M., MidrCeltis australis, Linn.Southern hackberry
, M., Y., B.Morus nigra, Linn.Black mulberry.
, Bible, M.; , T., Y., B.Ficus Carica, Linn.Fig.
, Bible, M., Midr.; , T.Ficus Sycomorus, Linn.Sycamore.
, M.; , Y.Caprificus, wild varieties of Ficus Carica, Linn., variety of Ficus genuina, Boiss., of Ficus rupestris, Haussk., etc.Fig
, M.Cannabis sativa, Linn.Hemp.
, T.Urtica urens, Linn.Nettie (?) (see Tribulus terrestris, under Zygophyllaceæ[?]).
Verbenaceæ.
Avicennia officianalis, Linn. (?).Avicennia (?).
Zygophyllaceæ.
, corrupted , T.(?).Tribulus terrestris, Linn., or Urtica urens, Linn.Land-caltrop, or nettie.

The foreign plants mentioned in the Talmud include the following, although the Bosicellia was cultivated in Palestine in antiquity:

Hebrew Name.Botanical Name.Popular Name.
, Bible; , T.Acorus Culamus, Linn.Sweet-flag, calamus-root.
, M.Amomum, Linn.Amomum.
, M.; , Y., B.Amomum CardamomumCardamom.
, M.; (?).Saussurea Lappa, Clarke (Aucklandia Costus, Falconer; Gildemeister and Hoffmann, l.c. p. 901).Costus.
, Bible, T., B., Midr.gum-resin of Commiphora Abyssinica, Engl., Commiphora Schimperi, Engl., and others.
, M. (, , Bible.Balsamodendron Opobalsamum, Kunth., Commiphora Opobalsamum (Linn.), Engl.Balsam.
, Bible, M., T., B.frankincense of Boswellia serrata, Roxb., and others.
resin of the dragon-tree, Calamus Draco, Willd. (Dracaena Draco, Linn., etc.).Dragon's-blood.
, Bible, M., Y., Midr.; , B.Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, Nees.Cinnamon.
, M.bark of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, Nees.Cinnamon.
, B. (read )Dalbergia Sissoo, Roxb.Sissoo-wood.
Diospyros Ebenum, Retz.Ceylon ebony.
, Bible, M., T., B.Galbanum from Ferula galbaniflua, Boiss. and Buhse.Galbanum.
Myristica fragrans, Houtt., and others.A species of nutmeg and mace from the nutmegtree.
, M., Bible; , T.Nardostachys Jatamansi, DC.Spikenard.
, M., Y., B.Piper nigrum, Linn.Black pepper.
, M.; , T., B.; from this, .Scorodosma (Ferula) Asafœtida (Linn.), Benth. and Hook.Asafetida.
, B.; from this, .Tectona grandis, Linn.Teak.
Zingiber officinale, Rose.Ginger.

The following are names of briers not yet identified: Tradition, comparative philology, and botany alike fail to furnish any aid in the identification of the following names of plants, which appear, for the most part, only once:

  • , M. (, Y.);
  • , M. (not lichens);
  • , Y.;
  • , B. (not St.-John's-wort);
  • , M.;
  • ), M.;
  • , Y.;
  • , M. (not blossoms of the κίσσαρος);
  • , M. (not the oak or the ash);
  • , B.;
  • , Y.;
  • , M.;
  • ), M.;
  • , Y.;
  • (), (not Verbascum, mullein);
  • , M.;
  • (not μελισσόφνλλον, balm);
  • and varieties;
  • and varieties;
  • (not Costus Arabicus, Linn.).
Unidentified Names.

Where tradition is lacking it is extremely difficult to identify the plant-names recorded in the Mishnah and Talmud, though inferences may occasionally be drawn from the plants mentioned in connection with a problematical term. An instance of this is the , mentioned together with the , carob, St.-John's-bread (Ter. ii. 4; Tosef. v. 33 = Yer. 'Orlah ii. 62a; Yer. Bik. iii. 65, 13c; 'Uḳ. i. 6), and which occurs by itself (: Tosef., Ter. vii. 37; Yer. Ter. viii. 45, 68b; Sifra, Shemot, 57a; Ḥul. 67a). This was traditionally explained as a variety of bean ("Halakot Gedolot," ed. Hildesheimer, 547, 4, where the correct reading is =TaSHBaẒ, iii. 11, ), but later was regarded as an acorn. The proximity of the carob suggested Cercis Siliquastrum, Linn. (Leunis, "Synopsis," § 437, 14), the Judas-tree, on which Judas Iscariot is said to have hanged himself, although according to other traditions he died on an elder or a jujube. Pulse is called "false carob," ἄγρια ξνλοκερατήα (Lenz, "Botanik der Griechen und Römer," p. 733; Fraas, "Synopsis," p. 65; Post, l.c. p. 297). It is, however, to be identified with the Prosopis Stephaniana (Willd.), Spreng., which belongs to the same family. This is in accordance with the view of Ascherson, who was surprised, while in the oases, by the similarity of the sweet, well-flavored pulp of the fruit of this tree with that of the St.-John's-bread (ib. p. 298).

The "Halakot Gedolot." —In the Geonic Literature:

The geonic period, which came to an end in 1040 (See Gaon), saw a development of the botanical knowledge of the Babylonian Jews, as is evident from the decisions of the Geonim and the first great post-Talmudic-halakic work, the "Halakot Gedelot" (cited hereafter as "H. G."). The chief cultivated plant that is mentioned in this work for the first time in Hebrew literature is the sugar-cane. Other important trees, plants, and fruits menioned are the following: tree and fruit of the Musas sapientium, Linn., the banana, perhaps also a variety of the Musa paradisiaca, the plantain, under the Arabic name "mauz," derived from the Sanskrit ("H. G." 56, 19; 57, 5; "Responsa der Geonim," ed. Lyck, No. 45, p. 18; "Toratan shel Rishonim," ii. 56; "Shibbole ha-Leḳeṭ," 12b; RaDBaZ, ed. Fürth, No. 531, s.v. "Hai"; "Bet Yosef," Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 203; Löw, "Aramäische Pflanzennamen," p. 336); Daucus Carota, Linn., carrot, (also in Arabic and Syriac, "H. G." ed. Hildesheimer, 60, 19; ed. Venice, 8, b4; "Eshkol," i. 68, 10; Post, l.c. p. 372; Löw, l.c. p. 86); , Sinapis arrensis, Linn., a variety of mustard, put in brine in Roman fashion ("H. G." ed. Hildesheimer, 72; read thus instead of ; Post, l.c. p. 76; Löw, l.c. p. 178); plums, under the name of , like the Syrian "ḥaḥa" ("H. G." ed. Venice, 7, c15; Löw, l.c. p. 149); ("H. G." ed. Venice, 8, b23; lacking in ed. Hildesheimer, 58, 28; "Eshkol," i. 68, , as in Syriac), a variety of bean (in this same passage and in "H. G." ed. Hildesheimer, 547, 5, also , Arabic "baḳilta"); another variety of bean (Löw, l.c. p. 245); ("H. G." 58, 4-5), myrobalan, as in Syriac, from the Arabic "halilaj," not mentioned again until the time of Asaph ben Berechiah, but used later in all the works on medicine (Steinschneider, "Heilmittelnamen der Araber," No. 1997; Löw, l.c. p. 129); ("H. G." ed. Venice, 8b, 21-22), the Aramaic form of the mishnaic , a Persian loan-word, appearing again in Asaph (Löw, l.c. p. 373); (?), marginal gloss in "H. G." (ed. Hildesheimer, 57, 6), a ground-fruit. In "H. G." 70, last line = "Eshkol," i. 68, the Arabic "ḥinnah" is used for the Biblical "henna" (Löw, l.c. p. 212).

Persian and Arabic Names.

Other Arabic and Persian names of plants which are mentioned in works of the Geonim are: , hemp-seed ("H. G." 56, 20; "Eshkol," i. 68, with "resh," but in ed. Venice, 7b, rightly with "dalet"; RaDBaZ, ed. Fürth, 531, s.v. "Hai"; Löw, l.c. pp. 211, 248); , Polypodium ("H. G." 111, 5; Löw, l.c. p. 268); , Brassica Rapa, Linn., turnip ("H. G." 72, 21; Mishnah, Talmud, ; Löw, l.c. p. 241); ("H. G." ed. Venice, 8c), Ocymum basilicum, Linn., basil; , pine-nuts (ib. ed. Hildesheimer, 57, 8; ed. Venice, 7d; "Eshkol," i. 67); ("H. G." 57, end; Hai, in "Responsa der Geonim, Ḳehillat Shelomoh," ed. Wertheimer, No. 9; Harkavy, "Responsen der Geonim," p. 28; Löw, l.c. p. 286); , the Arabic equivalent of , lily ("H. G." 70; end); (ib. 546, 10). A number of Arabic names of plants may be found in the marginal glosses of the Vatican manuscript of the "Halakot Gedolot," as "ḥasak," thorn, gloss on (ib. 160, No. 36); (read ), violet, on (ib. 70, No. 102; "Eshkol," i. 68; RaDBaZ, i. 44 = , "Keneset ha-Gedolah," Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 204; , responsa, "Debar Shemuel," No. 2; , Lebush, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 216, 8); , equivalent to the Arabic "sil," on ("H. G." 92, No. 29; Harkavy, l.c. p. 209).

The Geonim, especially Hai Gaon (see Hai ben Sherira), prefer to give their explanations in Arabic. In the responsa the Harkavy edition, for example, has "abnus," "shauḥaṭ," "sasam" (p. 135; Krauss, "Lehnwörter," ii. 46), "abhul" (p. 23; "Responsa der Geonim," ed. Cassel, p. 42a), "anjudan" (p. 23), "babunaj" (ib. p. 209), "sunbul al-nardin" (p. 29), and "kurnub" (ib. p. 208). In his commentary on the Mishnah (Ṭoharot) Hai Gaon gives, as a rule, the Arabic names of the plants side by side with the Aramaic terms, as, for example: "isfunj," "asal," "thayyil" (Harkavy, l.c. p. 22), "jauz buwa," "juliban," "ḥarshaf," "ḥulbah" (ib. p. 23), "ḥiltith," "ḥalfa," "khiyar," "khayzuran," "dar ṣini," "rajlah," "rumman," "za'faran," "sadhab," "safarjal," "silḳ," "shuniz," "shayṭaraj," "fuṭr," "ḳitha' al-ḥimar," "ḳirṭim," "ḳar'ah," "ḳaṣab albardi," "kummathra," "maḥruth" "na'na'."

The Arabic names of plants in the "'Aruk" are drawn almost without exception from geonic sources. The list is as follows (in the order of the Arabic alphabet):

  • Ajam, (this and 'uyun al-baḳar, s.v. ).
  • .
  • Aḳaḳiya, .
  • Unbub al-ra'a, 'aṣa al-ra'a, .
  • Baḳs, .
  • Baḳlah, (iii. 395a).
  • Baḳḳam, .
  • Ballut, .
  • Bunduk,
  • Jiilauz, .
  • Jummaiz, .
  • Julban, .
  • Ḥabb al-muluk, .
  • Ḥarmal, .
  • Ḥulbah, .
  • Ḥalfa, .
  • Ḥimmiṣ, .
  • Ḥandaḳuḳ, .
  • Ḥanẓal, .
  • Khirwa', .
  • Khashkhash, .
  • Dar ṣini, (iii, 161b, 428b).
  • Dar kisah, .
  • Rajlah, (ii. 241b).
  • ẓaghab al-khiyar, .
  • Zarghun, .
  • Za'rur, .
  • Zawan, .
  • Safarjal, .
  • Silḳ, (i, 79b).
  • Summaḳ, (also s.v. , No. 2 in Paris MS.).
  • Simsim, .
  • Shajar maryam, .
  • Shuḥ, .
  • ṣaghir al-adhnab, .
  • ṣanaubar, .
  • 'Afṣ, .
  • 'Uẓruban, .
  • Ghubaira', .
  • Fuji, .
  • Farfaḥin, .
  • Fustaḳ, (s.v. ).
  • Fuḳḳa', (s.v. ).
  • Faijan, .
  • Fuwwah, .
  • Ḳaḳullah, (ii. 241b).
  • Ḳarnabiṭ, .
  • Ḳaranful, .
  • Ḳuṭniyya, .
  • Ḳulḳas, (not )
  • Kabar (kifar), (viii. 248).
  • Karrath, .
  • Karafs, .
  • Kuzburah, .
  • Kushut, .
  • Kamah, .
  • Labsan, .
  • Na'na', .
  • Nil, .
  • Hindaba, .
Hai Gaon.

For a proper understanding of the Talmudic writings constant reference must be made to the traditions of the Babylonian schools, preserved in the decisions, commentaries, and compendiums of the Geonim and their pupils. Most Jewish statements about plants likewise rest on such traditions, of which the greatest number is preserved in the writings of Hai Gaon. He has also kept a number of old Aramaic words in his explanations, such as , radish; , camomile; [?]; Löw, l.c. pp. 140, 309, 326; Harkavy, l.c. p. 209).

Hananeel b. Hushiel.

R. Hananeel ben Ḥushiel preserved a considerable amount of botanical information from geonic sources, and this was made more generally known by the "'Aruk." For example, he strikingly describes sago as "a substance like meal, found between the fibers of the palm" (Kohut, "Aruch Completum," vi. 65a); coconuts as coming from India(ib. vi. 10a); arum () as a plant whose roots are eaten as a vegetable with meat, and which bas leaves measuring two spans in length and two in breadth (ib. v. 29a); and reeds as growing after their tops have been cut off (ib. iii. 420b). Mention is made of a prickly food for camels (ib. ii. 130b), as well as of castor-oil and its use (ib. vii.19b). Lupines and a certain other pulse, he declares, do not grow in Babylon(ib. vi. 229b). He is unable to describe Peganum Harmala, Linn., accurately, but says it is one of the plants used for medicinal purposes, while its small, blackish seed, which has a strong and unpleasant smell, is very hot (ib. viii. 19b), in the technical sense of the Greek medical writers; it is mentioned here for the first time in rabbinical literature (Meyer, "Gesch. der Botanik," ii. 192; comp. Galen, xii. 82; "It is hot in the third degree"). According to Sherira Gaon, all seeds are hot, and therefore the seed-bearing onion stalk also is hot (Kohut, l.c. v. 330a; these are the first traces of Greek medicine in rabbinical literature).

Saadia.

Cedar-wood becomes moist in water, but fig-wood remains dry ("Da'at Zeḳenim, Ḥuḳḳat," beginning), according to Saadia Gaon, whose translation of the Bible is the chief source of many identifications of Biblical plants, since, where definite traditions were lacking, he introduced definite Arabic terms to make his translation readable (Bacher, "Die Bibelexegese," p. 6).

In conclusion, a few more botanical details from the writings of the Geonim may be mentioned: the accurate differentiation of capers, their buds, blossoms, fruit, and parts; the correct explanation of "asparagus" as the tender roots of cabbage, not asparagus (Harkavy, l.c. p. 196); and an accurate definition of (ib. p. 179). Hai Gaon clearly describes the Cuscuta (ib. p. 215; Löw, l.c. p. 231) and the heads of camomile, and gives a brief account of the = Arabic "ghubaira'" (Harkavy, l.c. p. 28; "Ḳehillat Shelomoh," ed. Wertheimer, No.9). The artichoke is also well characterized by Sherira and Hai when they say that the spines are taken off, and the inside of the plant is eaten (Abu al-Walid, Dictionary, 115, 17; 392, 4 [ed. Bacher]; D. Ḳimḥi, "Miklol," s.v. ). One geonic writer, probably Hai, identifies with the eggplant, but for historical reasons this can not be accepted.

Eldad ha-Dani.

In the geonic period Eldad ben Mahli ha-Dani invented his "darmush" for pepper, and also declared that neither thorns nor thistles grow in the lands of the Lost Ten Tribes (D. H. Müller, "Die Recensionen und Versionen des Eldad ha-Dani," pp. 18, 68, Vienna, 1892), which devote themselves to the cultivation of flax (ib. p. 1). To the same period belongs the medical work of Asaph ben Berechiah, which is based upon the Syriac translation of Dioscorides, and has thus preserved many Syriac names of plants. Shortly after Asaph came Shabbethai Donnolo (946), who was primarily a writer on medicine. In the "Sefer ha-Yaḳar," ch. iii.-iv., however, he enumerates the plants that improve or injure the quality of honey.

The list of thirty varieties of fruit given by pseudo-Ben Sira is noteworthy, even though it is borrowed from Greek sources. The passage is discussed by Löw (l.c. pp. 2 et seq.) with reference to Mas'udi (ib. p. 4; see also Brüll, "Jahrb." i. 205). Even before Löw, Nöldeke had suggested that there were Arabic recensions of the passage (Löw, l.c. p. 417); and their existence is evident not only from Ms'udi but also from Ṭabari ("R. E. J." xxix. 201). According to Steinschneider ("Hebr. Bibl." 1882, p. 55), the thirty varieties of fruit are mentioned as Palestinian also by Ḥayyim Vital in Natan Spira'a "Sha'are Yerushalayim," vi. 6, end.

—In the Post-Geonic Period:

Information concerning the knowledge of plants in the post-geonic period must be sought in the translations of the Bible, the commentaries on the Bible and Talmud, and the lexicons. Here it will be sufficient to mention some of the statements of R. Gershom, the 'Aruk, Rashi, and a few other writers.

R. Gershom.

In the commentaries which are probably correctly ascribed to him R. Gershom ben Judah has the oldest foreign Words (Königsberger, "FremdsprachlicheGlossen, I.—R. Gerschom b. Jehuda," 1896; Brandin, "Les Loazim de R. Gershom," in "Publ. Ecole Nationale des Chartes," pp. 15 et seq., Toulouse, 1898; "R. E. J." Nos. 83, 84, 85. Brandin consulted the manuscripts also; but, strangely enough, he has not the gloss , B. B. 2b, and this is also lacking in Löw's alphabetical list of Gershom's foreign words). Brandin transcribes the following foreign plant-names: "aveine," wild barley; "bayes," fruits of the laurel; "boso" (Italian), "bois," boxwood; "cro," "crocu orientel," saffron; "homlon," hop; "kmel" ("chmiel," Slavonic); "kos," "kost," costmary; "lasre' (Italian, "lasero"), laserwort; "lesche," sedge; "lor," laurel; "molse," moss; "ortyes," nettles; "pores," leek; "sape," fir-tree; "sigle," rye; "spicu," ear of corn, spikenard; "tel," linden-tree; "ternure," ternage; "tora," torus (Menahem b. Solomon, ); "waranẓe," madder-root; and (on , Tamid 29b).

The linden is mentioned here for the first time in Jewish literature. Later, is translated "linden" in Germany (Grünbaum, l.c. p. 27), and Baruch Lindau (1788) renders by "linden." The only linden that Post (l.c. p. 8) knows in Palestine is the Tilia argentea, Desf., the Oriental silver linden, which grows in the region of the Amana. No linden is mentioned as coming from Egypt (Ascherson and Schweinfurth, "Flore d'Egypte," p. 53). Nor did the Syrians know how to translate φιλύρα, the name of silver linden; the Arabic rendering by Berggren (in a manuscript belonging to the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft) is "zihr al-maḥlab." The word "thore," mentioned above, also is of interest, a R. Gershom ben Judah is the oldest source for the word.

According to Güstav Schlessinger, Rashi has the following French names of plants:

French Name.English Name.
Aloès (aloine)Aloes.
Aloisne, aluisneWormwood.
Amandelier.
Amerfollie.
AnethDill.
ApjeSmallage.
Aristoloche (?)Birthwort.
Arnica (?)Arnica.
AsperelleHorsetail, shave-grass.
AspergeAsparagus.
AvenuOats.
BaleBerry.
BalsmeBalsam.
BletWild blite.
BoletBoletus.
BroceShrubs.
BaisBoxwood.
CâprierCaper-bush.
CepVine-stock.
Cerfuel, cerfoilChervil.
CeriseCherry.
CerqueOak.
ChardonThistle.
Chastaigne, chastaignier.Chestnut.
ChesneOak.
ChicheChickpea.
Cipoule, ciboule.hallot, cibol.
CoinzQuince.
ColdreHazelnut.
ConcombreCucumber.
Corme, cormier.Sorb, servicetree.
CotonCotton.
CressonCress.
Croc, groc.
EglantierEglantine.
EliandreOleander.
Erbe felchièreFern.
Erbe sabonaireSoapwort.
Erugue.
EspeltreSpelt. [nard.
Espic, spicNard, spike-
EspineThorn.
Fasele, faseoleKidney-bean.
Fenocle, fenoilFennel.
Fenugree, fenegre.Fenugreek.
GalleOak-apple.
GalvanGalbanum.
Geneivre, genievre.Juniperberry.
GirofieClove.
GlandAcorn.
Grespignolo, crespigno (?).
Guesde, waisde.Woad.
Homlon.
Ierre, ere, edreIvy.
Jote, jotteBeet.
June, joncRush.
LaitugueLettuce.
LanbruisWild vine.
LasreLaserwort.
LescheSedge.
LorLaurel.
LupineLupine.
MaroPoppy.
MalveMallow.
MarrubjeHoarhound.
MelonMelon.
MenteMint.
Meurier, mourier.Mulberrytree.
MilMillet.
MolseMoss.
Nesple, nêpleMedlar.
NieleRose-campion, mullein-pink.
OlmeElm.
OrtieNettle.
OseilleSorrel.
Osre, osierOsier.
Pallie, poile foarre (?).Straw.
Panis, penizPanic-grass.
PastèqueWatermelon.
Perseche, preseche.Peach.
Peuplier, pouplier.Poplar.
PinPine-tree.
Plançon (?)Sapling.
Pomel.
Porchaille, porchilague.Pursiane.
Poré, porelePore.
Poulieul, pouliol, poliol.
ProvainSlip.
Prune, prunierPlum-tree.
Pulpiet, pourpier.Purslane.
PyrèthreSpanish camomile, feverfew.
RafneRadish.
RonceBlack berrybush.
RoseRose.
Rosell, roseauReed.
RudeRue.
Sadree.
SalceWillow.
Salvee, selvie.
Sambuc.
Sap.
SeigleRye.
SevelHedge.
Sorbier, cormier.Service-tree, sorb.
SoucheStump.
TanTan.
ThoreCrowfoot.
Til, teil, telLinden-hari.
TreilleVine-arbor.
TrembleAspen.
TrocheCluster of flowers or fruit.
Tudel, pecceHalm.
VedilleTendril.
Verance, varance.
VerdureVerdure.
Vice, vece.Vetch.
Viole, violéViolet.
ZinzibreGinger.

Most of the "loazim" of the Maḥzor Vitry, admirably discussed by Gustav Schlessinger, come from Rashi. Among the names of plants are:

  • Amerfoilie
  • Apje
  • Aspic
  • Cerfeuil
  • Chanve
  • Chardon
  • Cresson
  • Crispigno
  • Croc
  • Cumin
  • Eliandre (for coriandre)
  • Erbe Felchière
  • Erbe sabonaire
  • Erugue
  • Glanz
  • Gome
  • Homlon
  • Jonc
  • Laitungue
  • Marrubje
  • Mire (myrrhe)
  • Niele
  • Peis (pois)
  • Poré
  • Poulpfet
  • Prun
  • Rafne
  • Résine
  • Rude (rue)
  • Safran
The 'Aruk.

The Arabic names of plants found in the "'Aruk" of R. Nathan b. Jehiel have already been given, since they are derived for the most part, though not exclusively, from geonic sources. His vernacular glosses, in part taken from Gershom, are better preserved than Rashi's foreign words, of which twelve are lacking in Kohut's Italian index.

[In the following list the references, unless otherwise stated, are to Kohut, "Aruch Completum."]

  • Albatro (vi. 185a).
  • Aloe (i. 259b).
  • Aneto (viii. 24a).
  • Appio (iv. 341a; "R. E. J." xxvii. 241).
  • Armoraccio (vii. 28b).
  • Asparago (iv. 158a).
  • Assafetida (error for "lasero").
  • Atrepice (v. 49b).
  • Aveliana (ii. 42a); nocella (vi. 367b; Menahem b. Solomon, "Sekel Ṭob," p. xii.).
  • Avena (see segale).
  • Balsamo (vii. 84b).
  • Bambagia (vii. 25b).
  • Bassilico (iv. 234b).
  • Bieta, bliti (i. 79b, 138b; Siponto [hereafter cited as Sip.] on Kil. i. 3; not "bietola").
  • Bosso, busso (i. 314a, vi. 328a).
  • Brasile (vii. 277b; Sip. on Kil. ii. 5).
  • Canapa (vii. 131a; Sip. on Kil. v. 8; "R. E. J." xxvii. 246).
  • Canella (iii. 161b).
  • Cappero (v. 374b, vi. 421a, vii. 21a; Sip. on Dem. i. 1; Ma'as. iv. 6).
  • Cardi domestici (vi. 90b; Sip. on Sheb. ix. 5; comp. cardatore, vi. 144).
  • Cardo (vi. 196a; "R. E. J." xxvii. 248).
  • Caretto, not corteccia (iii. 408a).
  • Cerasa (iii. 5b).
  • Cicerchia, cicercla (iii. 431b, vi. 301a, b; Sip. on Kil. i. 1).
  • Ciceri (i. 220a; Sip. on Kil. iii. 2; Peah iii. 3).
  • Cinnamomo (iii. 305a).
  • Colocasia (v. 29a).
  • Coriandro, culiandro (ii. 239a, 241b. iv. 272a; Menahem, "Sekel Ṭob." p. xii.; Sip. on Kil. i. 2; Sheb. ix. 1; "R. E. J." xxvii. 245, note).
  • Corme (French) salvatico (iv. 333a).
  • Costo (vii. 64a, 223b; Sip. on Kil, i. 8).
  • Cotogna (iii. 343a; "R. E. J." xxvii. 248; Sip. on Kil. i. 1).
  • Crespino (vi. 210a; "R. E. J." xxvii. 246; Menahem, l.c. p. xi.).
  • Croco orientale (vi. 320b, vii. 310b).
  • Dattile, gloss (vi. 32b).
  • Eliotropio (vi. 252b).
  • Eliera, édera (iii. 472a, vii. 148b; "R. E. J." xxvii. 247; Sip. on kil. v. 8).
  • Erbaglaucio (ii. 290b).
  • Fagiuolo, fasolo (vi. 301b; Sip. on Kil. i. 2).
  • Fava, faba, faba blanca (vi. 301b; Sip, on Kil. i. 1).
  • Ferula (viii. 19b).
  • Finocchio, Fenuclo (iv. 158a, viii. 61a; "R. E. J." xxvii. 245; Sip. on Sheb. ix. 1).
  • Forraggio (i. 190a).
  • Fungo (iii. 14b, vi. 318b; "R. E. J." xxvii. 248).
  • Galla (iii. 431b).
  • Garofano, giroflo (iv. 301b; "R. E. J." xxvii. 242).
  • Gelso (ii. 129b; on ; Sip. on Sheb. vii. 5; , Ma'as. i. 2).
  • Glande (v. 36a, 393a; vi. 104b).
  • Gomma (ii. 378b, vii. 122a).
  • Indaco, indicum (i. 172a; Sip. on Kil. ii. 5).
  • Indivia (error for "senazione").
  • Isopo (vi. 2b; Sip. on sheb. viii. 1).
  • Lambrusco (ii. 339b).
  • Lasero puzzolento or purulento (Menahem, l.c., ), not laserpitium (iii. 421a).
  • Lattuga (iii. 364b; "R. E. J." xxvii. 243. , Menahem, l.c.; Sip. on Kil. i. 2).
  • Laudano (error for "ladano") (v. 18b).
  • Lauro (vi. 256b; "R. E. J." xxvii. 243).
  • Legume (vii. 83a; Sip. on Ḥal. i. 4).
  • *Lisca (vi. 75a).
  • Lupino (false reading, ii. 362a, iv. 333a).
  • Malva (iii, 246b, 404b; vi. 391a; Sip. on Kil. i. 8).
  • Marrobbio (v. 53b, viii. 245a; "R. E. J." xxvii. 244; Menahem, l.c.).
  • Menta (i. 131a; v. 181a, 349b; "R. E. J." xxvii. 243).
  • Mora (viii. 291a).
  • *Nervolo (?. vi. 30b; , Sip. on Kil. i. 1; , Caleb Afendopolo, Kil. 16b; Kohut, "Aruch Completum," ervolo [?].
  • Nigella (vii. 175b, iii. 306b; not gioglio, loglio, but nigelia, corn-campion, confused with dranel).
  • Nocella (see avellana).
  • Origano (vi. 2b; Sip. on Sheb. viii. 1).
  • Orzo (vii. 256b).
  • Papavero (vi. 410).
  • Pastinaca (v. 346b),
  • Pera (i. 25a; Sip. on Kil. i. 4).
  • Persica (i. 242a).
  • Pigna (vi. 239b).
  • Pilatro (iii. 243b, 441b).
  • Pisi (pisello; vi. 301b; Sip. on Kil. i. 1).
  • Polio (iii. 248b; vi. 315b, 2b; Sip. on Sheb. viii. 1).
  • Porri (iv. 342b; "R. E. J." xxvii. 245; Sip. on Sheb. vii. 1; Kil. i. 2).
  • Procacchia, porcacchia (iii. 395a, iv. 263a, vii. 253a; Sip. on Sheb. ix. 1).
  • Prugua (iii. 155a, iv. 351b, vi. 294a; "R. E. J." xxvii. 248); (vi. 412a; Mussafla, jujubes, according to Buxtorf),, (viii. 281a; Ben Sira, " Pflanzennamen," 3; Caleb Afendopolo, twice with "r." Kohut, l.c. iv. 263a, is incorrect).
  • Radice (v. 364b; Sip. on Kil. i. 5).
  • Ramolaccio (see armoraecio).
  • Robbia (vii. 175b; Sip. on Sheb. v. 4, ).
  • (vi. 196a; neither ramuccio nor rusco).
  • Rosmarino (iii. 410a; "R. E. J." xxvii. 246).
  • (iii. 262a).
  • Ruchetta oruga (i. 305a, iv. 345a ("Ruca di Petro"; Sip. on Sheb. i. 1).
  • Ruta (vi. 291b; "R. E. J." xxvii. 246; Sip. on Kil. i. 8; Sheb. ix. 1).
  • Salvatico, selvatico (vi. 355b).
  • Sanguine (iii. 241b).
  • Satureia (iii. 511a; v. 349b; vi. 2b, 173a).
  • Segale (, Sip. on Kil. i. 1), variant reading, avena (viii. 13b; , Menahem, l.c.).
  • Senazione (iii. 222a; Caleb Afendopolo, Kil. 17a, ), domestiche and forestiche (vi. 210a), not sonco (comp. "R. E. J." xxvii. 241).
  • Sesamo (viii. 109b).
  • Sisimbrio (i. 297a, vi. 2b; Sip. on Sheb. viii. 1).
  • Sorbo (vi. 185a; see "albatro," "R. E. J." xxvii. 248; Sip. on Dem. i. 1).
  • Sorgo (viii. 144a).
  • Spelda, espelta (iii. 168a; , Menahem, l.c.; Sip. on Kil. i. 1).
  • Spicanardi (v. 334b, viii. 13a; "R. E. J." xxvii. 242).
  • Tartufo, tartufolo (vi. 318b; "R. E. J." xxvii. 248).
  • Veccia (iii. 221b, iv. 343b, vi. 301b; Sip. on Kil. i. 1).
  • Zenzero (iii. 305a; "R. E. J." xxvii. 247; , Sip. on Orlah ii. 10).
  • Zenzevero, Zenziberi (ii. 316b).
  • Zizzania (ii. 233) is wrong, even if the word were Italian; it is Aramaic, however.
  • Zizziba (?) (iii. 321b).
  • Zucchero (iii. 473a) is , and is not Italian.
R. Isaac Siponto.

In the twelfth century R. Isaac ben Melchizedek of Siponto took over from the "'Aruk" forty-one Italian names of plants and a few Arabic ones, while the Greek terms, such as θῆλις and ξυλοκήρατα, and the following Italian words occur for the first time in his work:

  • Aglio
  • Amandola
  • Carruba
  • Carvi
  • Cicero limpidi
  • Cicorea
  • Cipolla
  • Cocco
  • Costola di cavolo
  • Cucumberi
  • Endivia
  • Espica vulpi
  • Espino
  • Fenugreco
  • Lupino
  • Meli porcaroli
  • Miglio
  • Mirtilli
  • Riso
  • Rosa
  • Salvia
  • Senape
  • Sicomori
  • Timo

A large number of his plant-names still await identification. Asparagus proper, which has erroneously been supposed to be mentioned in the Talmud (Krauss, "Lehnwörter," ii. 93), seems to occur first in Isaac's commentary on Sheb. ix. 1 as , "sparagio" (cited in "Kaftor wa-Feraḥ," 107b, Berlin; , corresponding to the Arabic "hilyaun" = "asparagus"; see Aldabi, "Shebilc Emunah," p. 75a; Tobias Cohen, 151a: or is wild asparagus; , the cultivated kind). Isaac is also the first post-Talmudic author to mention the cornel or dogwood (corniolo; κρανήα), in the passages Peah i. 5, Ma'as. i. 2, where he rejects the view that it is identical with , sumac.

Maimonides.

Maimonides gives the names of plants exclusively in Arabic in his commentary on the Mishnah; and these terms have been discussed by Löw in his "Aramäische Pflanzennamen," on the basis of the Berlin manuscripts of this gloss. In his medical writings likewise Maimonides follows the Arabic pharmacology; for instance, ninety-one vegetable remedies are mentioned in his "Dietetics"; but these belong rather to the history of medicine. From his "Morch" mention may be made of the story of the Nabatæan cultivation of the mạndrake and althea ("Moreh," French transl. by Munk, iii. 235), the reference to indigo (ib. i. 392), and the expression "like a locust-bean," meaning "practically worthless" (ib. i. 157). Maimonides has won a lasting name in the history of botany. Even after Sprengel ("Gesch. der Botanik," i. 178) had tried to identify the plants mentioned in the mishnaic tractate Kilayim, basing his investigation on the Latin translation of the commentary of Maimonides in the edition of the Mishnah by Surenhuis, Mayer ("Gesch. der Botanik," iii. 220), alluding to the plants mentioned in "'Uḳẓin," declared that Maimonides had given his interpretations with discrimination and had displayed an unmistakable knowledge of botany; but that, though he had a wide acquaintance with plants, his explanations were drawn chiefly from school traditions, and were not the result of independent investigation. Proceeding on the anthropocentric theory of the universe, Maimonides declares in his introduction to the Mishnah that trees and plants were created for the nourishment or healing of man, even though in some cases he fails to recognize this, or has never known it; and although the uses of all the plants on the earth may not yet be understood, each successive generation will become acquainted with new herbs and fruits which will prove of great advantage to it.

Estori Farḥi.

Of the later halakic writers the only one to be mentioned here is Estori Farḥi (flourished in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries), who made a careful geographical and scientific exploration of Palestine. His remarks on plants in his "Kaftor wa-Feraḥ" may readily be seen in the third index of Luncz's edition of that work, for which Löw arranged the data in their proper order. The comments in Wiesner's Hungarian biography of Farḥi (p. 31, Budapest, 1896) on certain botanical notes of the halakist are very inadequate. Farḥi's statements regarding shallots and onions in Syria are noteworthy, as are also his identification of Cordia Myxa, his accounts of Musa and Badingan, and the colloquial Arabic name for Pyrus Syriaca (Boiss.), equivalent to , which explains the Syriac (Löw, l.c. p. 208).

Menahem b. Solomon.

According to Buber ("Sekel Ṭob," Introduction, p. xi.), Menahem b. Solomon (1139) has the following names of plants in addition to the list already quoted from the "'Aruk": on on on (probably denoting R. Gershom's "thora"); on ; its resin , chicory (see Isaac Siponto above); on on .

Caleb Afendopolo.

In order to define the heterogeneous plants more accurately, the Karaite Caleb Afendopolo of Adrianople (end of the 15th cent.) arranged an alphabetical list of about sixty plant-names, and, following Maimonides in the main, tried to identify the plants and explained them in Arabic, Turkish, modern Greek, and Rumanian. Of this list, which appeared in the appendix to "Adderet Eliyahu," the following may be mentioned as of botanical importance: he regards as medlars, called also (Löw, l.c. p. 114; "R. E. J." xviii. 112, on "nespole"; Joseph Perles, "Beiträge zur Gesch. der Hebräischen und Aramäischen Studien," pp. 135 et seq.), because they have five seeds. He relates that the banana, was described by Japheth ha-Levi (953) as a cross between the datepalm and the colocasia; while he (Afendopolo) learned from the Karaite Joseph ha-Kohen that it was a cross between the date-palm and the sugarcane. Joseph told him also that the colocasia had a rootstock as large as an ox-head, and that it was the daily food in Egypt, where one head often brought as much as 900 dirhems. He describes the cucumber (Cucumis Chate, Linn.), which was widely cultivated in Egypt, as very long and as thick as the finger (ib. vii. 17b). The "nabḳ" (Zizyphus spina-Christi, Linn.), Christ's-thorn, he describes as sweet, and as large as a hazelnut (see Post, l.c. p. 201), while its shell was half red and half green, and its kernel was like that of an olive or common jujube. In his time, as at present, the tree was very common in Egypt (Ascherson and Schweinfurth, l.c. p. 59). Why Afendopolo ("Adderct Eliyahu," Appendix, p. 16c) uses the Hebrew or Aramaic (Löw, l.c. p. 225) for "parsley" is not clear.

David Al-Fasi and Ali b. Sulaiman.

In connection with Afendopolo two older Karaite lexicographers may be mentioned, David b. Abraham (Al-Fasi) and Ali b. Sulaiman, in whose works, according to Pinsker's extracts ("Liḳḳuṭe Ḳadmoniyyot," pp. 206 et seq.), the following names of plants are mentioned: "ṣandal," , sandalwood; "ma'atar" or "za'atar," ; "sasam" or "abnus," , ebony; "kama," , fungus; "kazbarah," , coriander; "saj," ; "khaṭmiyah," ; "za'arur" or "'anṣal," ; "wars" or "nilufar," ; "sa'atar" (= "za'atar"), ; "dulb," ; "ḥanẓal," ; "ḳarfah" or "ḳisṭ", ; "ḳarnafal," ; "ḳazaḥ," "shuniz," (Pinsker, erroneously, ); "salikhab," ; "sanṭ," ; "jummaiz," ; "sharbin," "abhal," "saj," or "shimashar," . "Henna" in Pinsker, l.c. p. 212, note 2, is an error.

Bibliography:
  • George E. Post, Flora of Syia Palestine, and Sinai from the Taurus to Ras Muhammad, and from the Mediterranean Sea to the Syrian Desert, Beirut, 1896;
  • J. Bornmüller, 'Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Flora von Syrien und Palästina (in Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 1898);
  • Leopold Fonck, Streifzilge Durch die Biblische Flora, Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1900, with a complete bibliography, pp. xi. et seq.
E. G. H. I. Lö.
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