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QUADRATUS, UMMIDIUS CAIUS:

Roman governor of Syria from 50 to 60 C.E. The procurator Cumanus had showed partiality to the Samaritans, who were at variance with the Galileans, and both parties appealed to Quadratus. The governor went to Samaria in 52 and suppressed the disturbance. The Samaritan and Galilean insurgents were crucified; five (eighteen according to Josephus, "B. J." ii. 12, § 6) Galileans whom the Samaritans pointed out as instigators of the movement were executed in Lydda; the high priest Ananias and Anan, the governor of the Temple, were sent in chains to Rome; and the leaders of the Samaritans, the procurator Cumanus, and the military tribune Celer were also sent to plead their cause before the emperor. In fear of further disturbances, Quadratus hurried to Jerusalem; finding the city peacefully celebrating the Feast of Passover, he returned to Antioch (Josephus, "Ant." xx. 6, §§ 1-2; "B. J." ii. 12, §§ 3-6; Zonaras, vi. 15). Cumanus was deposed and was succeeded by Felix, appointed at the request of the high priest, Jonathan, whom also Quadratus had sent to Rome.

The version of Tacitus ("Annals," xii. 45, 54) can not be reconciled with that of Josephus, since, according to the former, Felix and Cumanus were procurators at the same time, the one in Samaria and the other in Galilee. According to Tacitus, also, Quadratus himself sat in judgment upon Cumanus, and he expressly states that Quadratus was superior to the procurator in authority. Quadratus died during his tenure of office (Tacitus, "Annals," xiv. 26). Several coins struck by him have been found.

Bibliography:
  • Grätz, Gesch. 4th ed., iii. 725-728;
  • Schürer, Gesch. 3d ed., i. 335, 570;
  • Prosopographia Imperii Romani, iii. 468, No. 600.
S. S. Kr.
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