SIMONIAS (modern name, Samuniyyah):
A city in Galilee, about two hours southwest of Sepphoris. In the Talmud (Yer. Meg. 70a) it is identified with the Shimron of Josh. xi. 1, xii. 20, xix. 15, a name which had already been replaced in all passages of the Septuagint by Συμοών, whence the "Simonias" of the Greek period. Josephus calls the place a village, and states that while there he was attacked at night by the Roman decurion Ebutius, who was forced to withdraw, however, without success, since his cavalry could not be used in that locality ("Vita," § 24). The genuine Jewish spirit of the inhabitants is shown by the story that once when the patriarch Judah I. passed through their city, they asked him to send a scholar to instruct them (Gen. R. lxxxi. 2; Yer. Yeb. 13a). The name of the city occurs also elsewhere (Niddah 24b; Mek. on Deut. in "Hildesheimer Jubelschrift," p. 30), and in the Middle Ages it is mentioned by Estori Farḥi ("Kaftor wa-Feraḥ," ch. xi.).
- Robinson, Researches, iii. 439;
- Zunz, G. S. ii. 293;
- Neubauer, G. T. p. 189;
- Boettger, Topografisch-Historisches Lexikon zu den Schriften des Flavius Josephus, p. 232;
- Buhl, Geographie des Alten Palästina, p. 215.