- —Into Hebrew:
- From Arabic.
- The Ibn Tibbons.
- Literal Method of Translation.
- Translation of Maimonides.
- Judah al-Ḥarizi.
- Arabic Philosophy and Science.
- Thirteenth-Century Activity.
- Translations of Averroes.
- Aristotelian Commentaries.
- Anonymous Translations.
- From the Latin.
- Medieval Science and Philosophy.
- Modern Times.
- Into Arabic.
- —From the Hebrew:
- Into Latin.
- Christian Translators into Latin.
After the early victories of the Mohammedans and the consequent spread of Arabic civilization, the Jews of the Eastern countries became familiar with and adopted to a large extent the Arabic language; so much so that rabbis and scholars, if they desired to be understood by the masses, were compelled to write their works in that language. After the center of Jewish learning shifted from the Orient to Spain and southern France, some of these works, especially those dealing with the Halakah and Hebrew grammar, were translated from Arabic into Hebrew. In the lists of translations in this article the title of the translation is, as a rule, given in parentheses, with the date and place of publication of the first edition.From Arabic.
The oldest Hebrew translations from Arabic date from the eleventh century. In 1078 Isaac ben Reuben Albargeloni rendered into Hebrew, under the title "Ha-Miḳḳaḥ weha-Mimkar," Hai Gaon's treatise on purchase (Venice, 1602), also Ibn Janaḥ's lexicon "Kitab al-Uṣul" ("Sefer ha-Shorashim"). About the same time, perhaps a little earlier, some Karaite writings were translated into Hebrew by Moses ben Tobia. At the beginning of the twelfth century Moses ben Samuel ha-Kohen ibn Gikatilla translated the two principal works of Ḥayyuj, the treatises on "Verbs Containing Weak Letters" and "Verbs Containing Double Letters" (edited with an English translation by John W. Nutt, London andBerlin, 1870). From the first half of the twelfth century there are a translation, or rather a paraphrase, of Saadia's" Emunot we-De'ot," and a translation of his commentary on the "Sefer Yeẓirah," both by Moses ben Joseph of Lucena. Toward the middle of the same century Ibn Ezra translated Ḥayyuj's grammatical works, two works on the astrology of Mashallah ("She'elot" and "Kadrut"), and a treatise on geomancy ("Sefer ha-Goralot"). About the same time Judah ben Isaac ibn Ghayyat translated a casuistical dissertation on a part of Shebu'ot.
All these translations are said by Judah ibn Tibbon, in the introduction to the "Ḥobot ha-Lebabot," to be defective in character, their imperfections being due either to a less than thorough knowledge of Arabic or Hebrew on the part of the translators, or to the fact that the latter give their own opinions instead of those of the authors. A similar view is expressed by Judah ben Barzillai, in his commentary on the "Sefer Yeẓirah," with regard to Moses ben Joseph's translation of Saadia's commentary on that work, the Hebrew of which he declares to be unintelligible.The Ibn Tibbons.
A new era in regard to methods of translation began with Judah Ibn Tibbon, "the father of translators." At the request of Meshullam ben Jacob and his son Asher, Judah translated, in 1161, the first treatise of Baḥya ben Joseph ibn Paḳuda's ethical work "Kitab al-Hidayah ila Fara'iḍ al-Ḳulub." After its completion Joseph Ḳimḥi translated the remaining nine treatises and then the first one also. However, at the request of Abraham ben David of Posquières, Judah completed, under the title "Ḥobot ha-Lebabot" (Naples, 1489), the translation of the whole work, his version gradually superseding that by Ḳimḥi, of which only a small fragment has been preserved (published by Jellinek in Benjacob's edition of the "Ḥobot ha-Lebabot," Leipsic, 1846). The translation of Baḥya's work was followed by translations of Ibn Gabirol's "Kitab Iṣlaḥal-Akhlaḳ" ("Tiḳḳun Middot ha-Nefesh, "Constantinople, 1550), Judah ha-Levi's "Kitab al-Ḥujjah" ("Sefer ha-Kuzari," Fano, 1506), Ibn Janaḥ's "Kitab al-Luma'" ("Sefer ha-Riḳmah," ed. B. Goldberg, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1856) and "Kitab al-Uṣul" ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," ed. W. Bacher, Berlin, 1896), and Saadia's "Kitab al-Amanat wal-I'tiḳadat" ("Sefer ha-Emunot weha-De'ot," Constantinople, 1562). To Judah ibn Tibbon is attributed also, although on very slight grounds, the translation of the collection of maxims "Mibḥar ha-Peninim," usually ascribed to Ibn Gabirol, and of Aristotle's "Posterior Analytics." In all these translations Judah endeavored to render faithfully the very words of the authors—by no means an easy task, considering the richness of the Arabic vocabulary and the poverty of the Hebrew.Literal Method of Translation.
In order to reproduce the abstract ideas found in the philosophical writings new word-forms and technical terms had to be established. These word-forms and technical terms were naturally modeled after those of the Arabic, which, in their turn, were literal translations from the Greek. It is not surprising, therefore, that in the Hebrew versions of the philosophical writings there are many expressions which are unintelligible to those unacquainted with the Arabic terminology; but this can not be imputed as a fault to the translator, who could not find in Hebrew words adequate to the expression of abstract ideas, Hebrew being essentially the language of a people of concrete ideas. Judah's work is nevertheless far from being above criticism; it contains many faults which are due either to the translator's limited knowledge of Hebrew or to his misunderstanding of the original. Desiring to be faithful to the latter, Judah, like all the translators who took him as their guide, invariably rendered each Arabic word into an equivalent in Hebrew, without considering that a literal translation is not always possible and that some sentences must necessarily be recast in order to make them intelligible to a reader who is a stranger to Arabic constructions.
Another grave defect in Judah's method of translation, and one which gave rise to many errors and misunderstandings, was that he always used the same Hebrew word as an equivalent for a given Arabic word, regardless of the variations of meaning attached to the latter. Thus, for instance, he always uses the Hebrew verb ("to stand") for the Arabic , although, according to the preposition by which the latter is followed, it may also mean "to read," "to study," etc. Yet, notwithstanding numerous faults, Judah's translations were recognized as standards and accepted as models by all the Hebrew translators of Arabic in the Middle Ages. Thus his version of the "Cuzari" superseded that made a little later by Judah ibn Cardinal, as his rendering of the "Kitab al-Uṣul" superseded those made by Isaac ha-Levi and Isaac ben Judah Albargeloni.Translation of Maimonides.
The thirteenth century was especially rich in Hebrew translations from the Arabic, and those of Samuel Ibn Tibbon, the son of Judah, were prominent among them. An enthusiastic admirer of Maimonides, Samuel began by translating several of his works, the most important among which was the "Dalalat al-Ḥa'irin," which he finished in 1190 under the title "Moreh Nebukim." Samuel clung more tenaciously than his father to the letter of the Arabic text; he even introduced Arabic words into his translations, and, by analogy with the Arabic, gave to certain Hebrew words meanings different from the accepted ones. This system of translation could but impair the intelligibility of a text difficult in itself; and thus the "Moreh" abounds in passages which are enigmatic to those who do not possess a profound knowledge of Arabic. Samuel's translation was, indeed, approved by Maimonides himself, to whom it had been sent for revision; but in such a case Maimonides was the person least qualified to judge, since, as the author of the original and an expert in Arabic, he naturally had no difficulty in reading the Hebrew version. This at least must have been the opinion of the poet Judah al-Ḥarizi, who, at the beginning of the thirteenth century, made a new translation of Maimonides' work and accused Samuel ibn Tibbonof having intentionally obscured the text. Al-Ḥarizi was not successful in his attempt to supersede Samuel's translation with his own, for the former was found by some critics to be more faithful to the original. Thus Shem-Ṭob ibn Falaquera, passing judgment upon both translations, says: "In Ibn Tibbon's translation the errors are few, and if the learned translator had had time he certainly would have corrected them; but in Al-Ḥarizi's, mistakes are numerous and words are often given wrong meanings."
In addition to the "Moreh," Samuel translated the following works of Maimonides: a treatise on resurrection ("Iggeret," or "Ma'amar Teḥiyyat ha-Metim"); the Mishnah commentary on Pirḳe Abot, with the psychological introduction ("Shemonah Peraḳm"); the "Thirteen Articles of Faith" ("Shelosh 'Esreh 'Iḳḳarim"); a letter addressed to Joseph ibn 'Aknin. Samuel did not confine his activity to Jewish writings, but translated works written by Arabs and bearing on philosophy and medicine. Among these were: Yaḥya ibn Baṭriḳ's Arabic translation of Aristotle's "Meteora" ("Otot ha-Shamayim," or "Otot 'Elyonot"), three small treatises of Averroes ("Sheloshah Ma'amarim"), and Ali ibn Riḍwan's commentary on the "Ars Parva" of Galen.Judah al-Ḥarizi.
No less prominent in the field of translation was the above-mentioned poet Judah al-Ḥarizi. In addition to the "Dalalat al-Ḥa'irin," he translated Maimonides' treatise on resurrection (already rendered into Hebrew by Samuel ibn Tibbon) and his Mishnah commentary on Zera'im, Ḥariri of Busrah's " Maḳamat" ("Maḥberot Itiel"), Ali ibn Riḍwan's ethical epistle, Galen's essay against hasty interment, a treatise on the soul ("Sefer ha-Nefesh") also attributed to Galen, an originally Greek work on the "Dicta of the Philosophers" ("Mussare ha-Filosofim"), and an anonymous treatise on geomancy ("Sefer ha-Goralot").
A prolific translator, whose style, although less poetic, was more clear than that of his contemporary Al-Ḥarizi, was Abraham ben Samuel Ḥasdai. Among his translations are the following: the pseudo-Aristotelian "Kitab al-Tuffaḥah" ("Sefer ha-Tappuaḥ," Venice, 1519; frequently reprinted); Ghazali's ethical work "Mizan al-'Amal" ("Mozene Ẓedeḳ," in which the translator replaced the quotations from the Koran and the Sunnah with their equivalents from Bible and Talmud; ed. Goldenthal, Leipsic, 1839); Isaac Israeli's "Kitab al-Istiḳat" ("Sefer ha-Yesodot"); Maimonides' "Sefer ha-Miẓwot," with his letter to the Yemenite Jews("Iggeret Teman"); and a romance presenting incidents in the life of Buddha ("Ben ha-Melek weha-Nazir," Constantinople, 1518). About the same time as the last-named work a famous book of fables was translated, under the title "Sefer Kalilah wa-Dimnah," by the grammarian Jacob ben Eleazar.
From about 1230 to 1300 the most important Arabic works on philosophy, medicine, astronomy, mathematics, and other branches of learning were translated. The leading translators of that period were Jacob Anatolio (son-in-law of Samuel ibn Tibbon), Moses ibn Tibbon, Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon, the Italian physician Nathan ha-Me'ati, and Zerahiah ben Isaac ben Shealtiel Gracian. Anatolio translated the "Almagest" of Ptolemy ("Ḥibbur ha-Gadol ha-Niḳra al-Majesti"), the "Elements of Astronomy" by Al-Fargani, a treatise on syllogisms by Al-Farabi ("Sefer Heḳḳesh ha-Ḳaẓer"), and the first five books of Averroes' Middle Commentary on Aristotle's "Logic," consisting of the Introduction of Porphyry and the four books of Aristotle on the "Categories," "Interpretation," "Syllogisms," and "Demonstration."Arabic Philosophy and Science.
Moses ibn Tibbon, like his father, began his career as a translator with several works of Maimonides, including the treatise on hygiene ("Miktab," or "Ma'amar be-Hanhagat ha-Beri'ut "), a mishnaic commentary (probably on Zera'im), the "Book of Precepts" ("Sefer ha-Miẓwot," Constantinople, c. 1516), the treatise on logic ("Millot ha-Higgayon," Venice, 1552), the treatise on poisons ("Ha-Ma'amar ha-Nikbad," or "Ha-Ma'amar be-Ṭeri'ak"), and the commentary on Hippocrates' "Aphorisms." Moses' other translations are: Averroes' commentaries on Aristotle's "Physica Auscultatio" ("Kiẓẓure ibn Roshd 'al-Shema' Ṭib'i," Riva di Trento, 1559); "De Cœlo et Mundo" ("Kelale ha-Shamayim weha-'Olam"); "De Generatione et Corruptione" ("Sefer ha-Hawayah weha-Hefsed"); "Meteora" ("Sefer Otot ha-'Elyonot"); "De Anima" ("Kelale Sefer ha-Nefesh"); the Middle Commentary on the last-named work ("Bi'ur Sefer ha-Nefesh"); "Parva Naturalia" ("Ha-Ḥush weha-Muḥash"); "Metaphysica" ("Mah she-Aḥar ha-Ṭeba'"); a commentary on Avicenna's "Arjuzah" ("Bi'ur Arguza"); Avicenna's "Small Canon" ("Ha-Seder ha-Ḳaṭan"); Batalyusi's "Al-Ḥada'iḳ" ("Ha-'Agullot ha-Ra'yoniyyot," ed. Kaufmann, Leipsic, 1880); Al-Ḥaṣṣar's treatise on arithmetic ("Sefer ha-Ḥeshbon"); Euclid's "Elements" ("Shorashim," or "Yesodot"); Al-Farabi's "Book of the Principles" ("Hatḥalot ha-Nimẓa'ot ha-Ṭib'iyyim," ed. Filipowski, Leipsic, 1849); Geminus' introduction to the "Almagest" ("↔okmat ha-Kokabim," or "Ḥokmat ha-Tekunah"); Ibn al-Yazzar's "Viaticum" ("Ẓedat ha-Derakim"); Ḥunain's introduction to medical science ("Mabo el-Meleket ha-Refu'ah"); Razi's works on the division of maladies ("Ha-Hilluḳ weha-Ḥilluf") and on the antidotes; Ḥunain's translation of Themistius' commentary on the treatise "Lamda" ("Perush Ma'amar ha-Nirsham be-Ot Lamed") and of the Aristotelian physical questions ("She'elot Ṭib'iyyot"); Kosta ben Luka's translation of the "Sphærica" of Theodosius Tripolitanus ("Sefer Teodosiyus be-Kadur"); and Ibn Aflaḥ's astronomical work "Kitab Ilahiyah."
Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon translated: the "Elements" of Euclid; the treatise of Kosta ben Luka on the armillary sphere; the "Data" of Euclid ("Sefer ha-Mattanot") according to the Arabic translation of Isḥaḳ ben Ḥunain; the treatise of Autolycus on the sphere in movement ("Ma'amar Ṭalḳus"); three treatises on the sphere by Menelaus of Alexandria; Abu 'Ali ibn Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥaitham's astronomical work ("Ma'amar bi-Tekunah," or "Sefer 'al Tekunah"); Abu al-Ḳasim Aḥmad ibn al-Ṣaffar's treatise on the use of the astrolabe; AbuMohammed Jabar ibn Aflaḥ's compendium of the "Almagest"; Abu Isḥaḳ ben al-Zarḳalah's astronomical work ("Iggeret ha-Ma'aseh be-Luaḥ ha-Niḳra Sofiḥah"); the preface to Abraham bar Ḥiyya's astronomical work; an extract from the "Almagest" on the arc of a circle; Averroes' compendium of the "Organon" ("Ḳiẓẓur mi-Kol Meleket Higgayon," Riva di Trento, 1559); Averroes' paraphrase of books xi.-xix. of Aristotle's history of animals; Ghazali's "Mizan al-'Uyun," in which are refuted the philosophical ideas antagonistic to religion ("Mozene ha-'Iyyunim").Thirteenth-Century Activity.
Nathan ha-Me'ati, called the "Prince of Translators" and the "Italian Tibbonide," translated the following medical works: 'Ammar ben 'Ali al-Mauṣuli's "Al-Muntaḥib fi 'Ilaj al-'Ain," on the treatment of the eye; the "Canon" of Avicenna; the aphorisms of Hippocrates, with Galen's commentary; the aphorisms of Maimonides, and a selection from various authors, chiefly from Galen ("Pirḳe Moṣheh," Lemberg, 1804). Many anonymous translations are attributed to Nathan ha-Me'ati: Razi's treatise on bleeding ("Ma'amar be-Haḳḳazah"); Zahrawi's "Kitab al-Taṣrif" (Hebrew title, "Ẓeruf"); Ibn Zuhr's "Kitab al-Aghdhiyah" ("Sefer ha-Mezonot"); an anonymous work on the causes of eclipses ("Ma'amar 'al Libbot Liḳḳut ha-Me'orot"). A translation of Galen's commentary on Hippocrates' work "On Airs, Waters, and Places," begun by Nathan, was completed in 1299 by his son Solomon, whose son Samuel in turn concluded the translation of an extract from Galen's commentary on Hippocrates' work "On Regimen in Acute Diseases," and the translation of a medical work by Ibn Zuhr.
Zerahiah ben Isaac ben Shealtiel. Gracian translated: Aristotle's "Physics" ("Sefer ha-Ṭeba'"), "Metaphysics" ("Mah she-Aḥar ha-Ṭeba'"), "De Cœlo et Mundo" ("Ha-Shamayim weha-'Olam"), "De Anima" ("Sefer ha-Nefesh"), and "De Causis" ("Ha-Bi'ur ha-Ṭob ha-Gamur"); Averroes' Middle Commentaries on Aristotle's "Physics," "Metaphysics," and "De Cœlo et Mundo," with the commentary of Themistius on the last-named work; the first two books of Avicenna's "Canon"; Al-Farabi's "Risalah fi Mahiyyat al-Nafs" ("Ma'amar be-Mahut ha-Nefesh"); a medical work of Galen from the Arabic of Ḥunain ibn Isḥaḳ ("Sefer ha-Ḥola'im weha-Miḳrim"); three chapters of Galen's Καταγενή, with the same title in Hebrew characters; Maimonides' treatise on sexual intercourse; the "Aphorisms" of Maimonides.
The other translations of the second half of the thirteenth century were by:
- Albalag, Isaac: Ghazali's "Maḳaṣid al-Falasifah": Elijah Cohen's "Maḳamah" (similar to the "Assemblies" of Ḥariri), under the title "Megillat ha-'Ofer."
- Almoli, Nethaneel: Maimonides' commentary on Ḳodashim.
- Ḥayyim ibn Vives: Farewell letter of Ibn Sa'igh to 'Ali ben 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn al-Imam, of Granada.
- Jacob ben Moses ibn 'Abbasi: Maimonides' commentary on Nashim.
- Joseph al-Fawwal: Maimonides' Mishnah commentary on Mo'ed.
- Ma'arabi, Nahum: Maimonides' "Iggeret Teman" ("Petaḥ. Tiḳwah"); Isaac Israeli's, or Jacob ben Nissim's, commentary on the "Sefer Yeẓirah"; Joseph ibn Ẓaddiḳ's "Microcosmos" ("Ha-'Olam ha-Ḳaṭan"); Saadia's commentary on the thirteen hermeneutic rules of R. Ishmael ("Shelosh-'Esreh Middot").
- Shem-Ṭob ibn Falaquera: Ibn Gabirol's "Meḳor Ḥayyim."
- Shem-Ṭob ben Isaac: Averroes' Middle Commentary on "De Anima"; Razi's "Al-Manṣuri"; Zahrawi's "Al-Taṣrif."
- Solomon ibn Ayyub: Averroes' "De Cœlo et Mundo"; Avicenna's "Arjuza"; Ibn Janaḥ's "Kitab al-Taswiyah"; Maimonides' "Kitab al-Fara'iḍ."
- Solomon ibn Ya'aḳub: Maimonides' commentary on Neziḳin.
A great number of Arabic works on mathematics, medicine, astronomy, and philosophy, especially by Averroes, were translated during the fourteenth century. The leading translator in the first twenty years of that century was Kalonymus ben Kalonymus ben Meïr (Maestro Calo), who rendered the following Arabic works into Hebrew:
- Al-Farabi's treatise on the intellect ("Ma'amar be-Sekel weha-Muskal").
- Al-Farabi's division of the sciences ("Ma'amar be-Mispar ha-Ḥokmot").
- Al-Farabi's treatise on the method of studying philosophy ("Iggeret be-Siddur Ḳeri'at ha-Ḥokmot").
- Al-Kindi's treatises on nativities ("Iggeret be-Ḳiẓẓur ha-Ma'amar be-Moladot") and on the influence of the heavenly bodies on rain ("Iggeret be 'Illot").
- Al-Kindi's treatise on humidity and rain ("Iggeret be-Laḥit ube-Maṭar").
- 'Ali Ibn Riḍwan's "Kitab al-'Imad fi Uṣul al-Ṭibb" ("Ha-'Ammad be-Shoroshe ha-Refu'ah").
- Archimedes' treatise on the sphere and the cylinder, from the version of Kosta ben Luka.
- Averroes' commentaries on the "Topics" ("Bi'ur Sefer Ṭobiḳi") and on "Sophisms" ("Bi'ur Sufisṭiḳa").
- Averroes' Great Commentary on the "Second Analytics " ("Bi'ur Sefer ha-Mofet").
- Averroes' Middle Commentaries on "Physics"; on "De Generatione et Corruptione" ("Sefer ha-Hawayah weha-Hefsed"); on "Meteora" ("Otot ha-Shamayim").
- Averroes' Middle Commentary on the "Metaphysics" ("Sefer Mah she-Aḥar ha-Ṭeba'").
- Averroes' dissertations on the first book of the "First Analytics."
- Commentary on the Καρπός of Ptolemy, from the Arabic version of Abu Ja'far Aḥmad ben Yusuf ben Ibrahim ("Sefer ha-Peri ha-Niḳra Me'ah Dibburim").
- Galen's treatise on clysters and colic, from the version of Ḥunain ibn Isḥaḳ ("Sefer Galyanus be-Ḥaḳna ube-Kulga").
- Galen's essay on bleeding ("Sefer Galyanus be-Haḳḳazah").
- Nichomæus of Gerasa's treatise on arithmetic, with a commentary of Abu Sulaiman Rabiya ibn Yaḥya.
- Ptolemy's treatise on the planets ("Be-'Inyane ha-Kokabim ha-Nebukim").
- Thabet ibn Kurrah's work on geometry, "Fi al-Shakl al-Ḳuṭṭa" ("Sefer ha-Temunah ha-Ḥittukit").
- Treatise on the triangle by Abu Sa'adan.
- Treatise on mathematical propositions ("Sefer Meshalim be-Tishboret").
- Treatise on Euclid's five geometrical bodies in relation to the theory of Apollonius, and the commentary of Simplicius.
- Treatise on cylinders and cones ("Ma'amar be-Iẓṭawwonot ube-Ḥiddudim").
- Treatise on plants, attributed to Aristotle, with Averroes' commentary ("Sefer ha-Ẓemaḥim").
- Treatise on animals ("Iggeret Ba'ale Ḥayyim"), from the twenty-first treatise of the encyclopedia of the Brethren of Sincerity (Mantua, 1557).
Another important translator from the Arabic, and of the same period, was Samuel ben Judah (Bonjudas) Males. His translations include:
- Abu Abdallah Mohammed ibn Mu'ad of Seville on the eclipse of the sun, July 3,1097, and on the dawn ("Iggeret be-'Ammud ha-Shaḥar").
- Abu Isḥaḳ al-Zarḳalah on the movement of the fixed stars ("Ma'amar be-Tenu'at ha-Kokabim ha-Ḳayyamim").
- Abu Mohammed Jabbar ibn Aflaḥ's compendium of the "Almagest."
- Alexander of Aphrodisias on the intellect ("Ma'amar Aleksander al-Firduzi").
- Averroes' Middle Commentary on Aristotle's "Nichomachean Ethics."
- Averroes' commentary on Plato's "Republic."
- Averroes' Short Commentary on the "Organon"; on geometrical bodies (books xxx. and xxxi. of Euclid), a supplement to the translation of Kalonymus ben Kalonymus; commentary on the "Almagest," i.-iii.
- Dissertations on some obscure passages of Averroes' commentary on the "Organon," by Abu al-Ḳasim ibn Idris, Abu al-Ḥajjaj ibn Ṭalmus, Abu al-'Abbas Aḥmad ben Ḳasim, and 'Abd al-Raḥman ben Tahir.
Other Arabic works were translated in the fourteenth century by:
- Ibn Vives al-Lorqui: Various books of the "Short Canon" of Avicenna.
- Isaac ben Joseph ibn Pulgar: Ghazali's "Maḳaṣid al-Falasifah" ("Kawwanot ha-Filosuflm").
- Isaac ben Nathan of Cordova: Maimonides' "Maḳalah fi al-Tauḥid" ("Ma'amar ha-Yiḥud"), Tabrizi's commentary on Maimonides' twenty-five premises, and probably Joseph ibn 'Aknin's metaphysical essay.
- Joseph ben Abraham ibn Waḳḳar: A medical work ("Sefer Refu'ot") and Zahrawi's "Kitab al-Taṣrif."
- Moses ben Samuel ben Asher: Averroes' commentary on "Logic."
- Moses ben Solomon of Beaucaire: Averroes' Great Commentary on the "Metaphysics."
- Nathan Judah ben Solomon: Ibn Abi Ṣalt Umayya's medical work ("Kelal Ḳaẓer weha-Sammim ha-Nifradim") and Ghazali's "Maḳaṣid" ("Kawwanot ha-Filosuflm").
- Nethaneel ben Meshullam (or Menahem ben Nethaneel): Judah ibn Balaam's treatise on the Hebrew accents ("Horayyat ha-Ḳore").
- Samuel Motot: Abraham ibn Daud's "Al-'Aḳidah al-Rafl'ah" ("Emunah Ramah"; the same work was translated, under the title "Emunah Nisa'ah," by Solomon Labi). Samuel Motot translated also passages from pseudo-Ibn Ezra ("Sefer ha-'Aẓamim").
- Shem-Ṭob Ardotial: Isaac Israeli's ritual work ("Miẓwot Zemaniyyot").
- Samson ben Solomon: The compendium of Galen's writings by the Alexandrians ("Ha-Ḳibbuẓim le-Aleksandriyim").
- Solomon Dapiera: Moses ben Tobi's commentary on the didactic poem "Al-Saba'niyyah" ("Batte ha-Nefesh").
- Solomon ibn Patir: Ibn Haitham's astronomical work "Ḳaul fi Ḥi'at al-'Alam."
- Todros Todrosi: Averroes' Middle Commentaries on the "Poetics" and "Rhetoric," the three essays against Avicenna, the treatise on the intellect, Avicenna's "Naja," and Al-Farabi's philosophical questions, "'Uyun al Masa'il" ("'En Mishpaṭ ha-Derushim").
- —Averroes' treatise against Ghazali's "Tahafut al-Falasifah" ("Happalat ha-Happalah").
- —Ghazali's answers to philosophical questions ("Ma'amar bi-Teshubot She'elot Nish'al Mehem").
- —Pseudo-Ibn Ezra's "Sefer ha-'Aẓamim," and Joseph ibn Waḳḳar's and Solomon ibn Ya'ish's supercommentaries on Ibn Ezra's commentary on the Pentateuch.
With the fourteenth century the era of translations from the Arabic was practically closed, only a few works being translated during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. These were:
- Ḥayyim ibn Musa: A medical work of Al-Jazzar.
- Isaac ben Joseph Alfasi: Ghazali's "Mishkat al-Anwar" ("Mashkit ha-Orot we-Pardes ha-Niẓanim").
- Maẓliaḥ of Galilee and Solomon Ma'arabi: Isaac Alfasi's rules relating to the treatise Ketubot.
- Moses Galina: An astronomical treatise of Omar ibn Mohammed Meṣuman ("Sefer Mezuḳḳaḳ"). Moses Galina translated also a work on astrology ("Mishpaṭ ha-Mabbaṭim") and one on geomancy ("Sefer ha-Goralot").
- Moses ben Joseph Aruvas: The pseudepigraphic work known as the Aristotelian "Theology."
- Saadia ben David al-Adeni: Ghazali's "Zakat al-Nufus." (Saadia declared this to be his own work.)
- Tanḥum Moses of Beaucaire: Hippocrates' "Prognostics" ("Panim le-Panim").
- Zerahiah ha-Levi Saladin: Ghazali's "Tahafut al-Falasifah" ("Mappalat ha-Pilusuflm").
Several translations from the Arabic were made in the second half of the nineteenth century: Reckendorf translated the Koran (Leipsic, 1857); Joseph Derenbourg translated Maimonides' commentary on Seder Ṭohorot (Berlin, 1887-89); fragments of Saadia's commentaries on Proverbs, Isaiah, and Job were translated by Derenbourg, Meyer Lambert, and Wilhelm Bacher; Isaac Broydé translated Bahya's "Ma'ani al-Nafs" ("Torot ha-Nefesh," Paris, 1896).
The following are among the numerous works translated anonymously by Jewish authors:Anonymous Translations.
- Sahl ibn Bishr, astrological work, under the title "Kelalim";
- four works attributed to Isaac Israeli: (1) "Kitab al-Adwiyat al-Mufridah wal-Aghdhiyah," on diet ("Sefer Meḥubbar mi-Ma'amar ha-Rishonim be-Ṭeba ha-Mezonot we-Koḥatam"); (2) "Kitab al-Bul" ("Sefer Meḥubbar mi-Ma'amar ha-Rishonim be-Yedi'at ha-Sheten"); (3) "Kitab, al-Ḥummayat"; (4) "Aphorisms" ("Musar ha-Rofe'im");
- Saadia's "Emunot";
- Hai Gaon's treatise on oaths ("Mishpeṭe Shebu'ot");
- Responsa of the Geonim (Naṭronai, Saadia, Sherira, Hai);
- Japheth ben Ali's commentary on the Pentateuch;
- Joshua's "Teshubot ha-'Iḳḳarim" and Bereshit Rabbah;
- Judah ibn Baalam's works on homonyms ("Kitab al-Tajnis"), on the particle ("Otot ha-'Inyanim"), and on Verba Denominativa," "Al-Af'al al-Mushtaḳḳah min al-Asma" ("Ha-Po'alim Shehem me-Gizrot ha-Shemot");
- Moses ibn Ezra's "Kitab al-Ḥada'iḳ fi Ma'ani al-Mujaz wal-Ḥaḳiḳah" ("'Arugat ha-Bosem");
- Joseph ibn Ẓaddiḳ's "Microcosm" ("'Olam Ḳaṭan");
- Maimonides' treatises on the calendar ("Sefer ha-'Ibbur"), on happiness, "Maḳalah fl al-Sa'adah" ("Pirḳe ha-Haẓlaḥah"), and on forced conversions ("Iggeret ha-Shemad"), responsa on hemorrhoids, "Fi al-Bawasir" ("Ha-Ma'amar be-Refu'at ha-Ṭeḥarim"), on sexual intercourse, "Fi al-Jama'ah" ("Ma'amar ha-Mishgal"), and on poisons, "Al-Sumum wal-Mutaḥarriz min al-Adwiyah al-Ḳitalah," and the commentary on Hippocrates' "Aphorisms";
- Joseph ibn 'Aḳnin's" Maḳalah fl Ṭibb al-Nafs" ("Marpe le-Nefesh");
- Abraham Maimonides' "Kifayah";
- Moses Abulafla's theological work "Ma'amar Elohi";
- Joseph ibn Naḥmias' astronomical work "Nur al-'Alam" ("Or 'Olam");
- Joseph ibn Waḳḳar's work on the Seflrot.
The oldest known Hebrew translation from the Latin belongs to the thirteenth century. About 1250 Solomon ben Moses Melgueiri translated the treatise known as "De Somno et Vigilia" and attributed to Aristotle ("Ha-Shanah weha-Yeḳiẓah"); Averroes' commentary on the third book of Aristotle's "Metaphysics"; Avicenna's "De Cœlo et Mundo"; and Matthæus Platearius' "De Simplici Medicina." About the same time Berechiah ben Naṭronai Krespia ha-Naḳdan gave a Hebrew version of Adelard of Bath's "Quæstiones Naturales," and of a "Lapidary" containing a description of sixty-three kinds of stones. Toward the end of the same century Samuel ben Jacob of Capua rendered into Hebrew, under the general title "Meha-'Eẓah weha-Ṭeba'im," the Latin version "De Medicamentarum Purgationum Delectio," or "Castigatione," of a work of Mesue the Elder. About the same time Hillel ben Samuel translated the Latin version of Hippocrates' "Aphorisms" by Constantinus Africanus, and "Chirurgia Burni."From the Latin.
The fourteenth century, an age of translations from the Arabic, was equally fertile in translations from the Latin. About 1305 Estori Farḥi translated, under the title "Targum Sefer Refu'ot," Armengaud Blaise's "De Remediis," and, under the title "Sefer ha-Kibbusim," an anonymous work on purgatives that had been rendered into Latin from the Arabic by Elijah ben Judah. In 1320 Hezekiah ben Ḥalafta gave a Hebrew version of Petrus Hispanus' treatise on logic ("Higgayon"). About the sametime Samuel ben Benveniste translated, under the title "Menaḥem Meshib Nafshi," Boethius' "De Consolatione Philosophiæ." In 1327 Israel Caslari translated, under the title "Ma'amar be-Hanhagat ha-Beri'ut," Arnaud de Villeneuve's "Regimen Sanitatis."
More important than the above translations from the Latin were those made by Leone Romano, who, toward the middle of the same century, rendered into Hebrew the following works: Ægidius, "De Esse et Essentia" ("Ma'amar ha-Nimẓa weha-Meẓi'ut"); his treatises on the faculties of the soul("Ma'amar Hebdale Koḥot ha-Nefesh we-Ḥilluḳehem"), and on syllogisms ("Ma'amar ha-Hawayah ha-Heḳḳeshiyyah"); his commentary on the third book of Aristotle's "De Anima"; and extracts from the commentary on Aristotle's "De Demonstratione"; Albertus Magnus' commentary on the third book of Aristotle's "De Anima," and various extracts from Albertus Magnus' works; Alexander the Minarite's glosses to Aristotle's "Metaphysics"; extracts from Angelo de Camerino's works; the "Liber de Causis" ascribed to Aristotle; Thomas Aquinas' "Treatise on Ideas," and extracts from his "Contra Gentiles" ("Neged ha-Ummot"); Averroes' "De Substantia Orbis" ("'Eẓem ha-Shamayim"); Boethius' "De Unitate et Uno" ("Ma'amar ha-Eḥad weha-Aḥadut"). Other translations from the Latin were as follows: Johannes Paulinus' treatise on the medical virtues of the skin of the serpent ("Ma'amar bi-Segullot 'Or ha-Naḥash"), by David ibn Bilia; Francesco dei Cenneli's, Gentile da Foligno's, and John of Burgundy's "Consilia" ("'Eẓah"), by Joshua of Bologna; Arnaud de Villeneuve's treatise "De Vinis" ("Ha-Dibbur be-Yenot"), and Bernard of Gordon's and Gilbert's treatises on fevers, both translated by Judah Nathan ("En Bongodas" and "Bonjues"); Bernard de Gordon's "Lilium Medicinæ" ("Peraḥ ha-Refu'ot"), by Moses ben Samuel of Roccambra (John of Avignon) and by Jekuthiel ben Solomon of Narbonne ("Shoshan ha-Refu'ah"); Leon's "Historia de Prœliis" ("Toledot Aleksander"), by Immanuel ben Jacob Bonfils; Bernard Alberti's "Materia Medica" ("Mebo ha-Melek"), Arnaud de Villeneuve's "Medicationis Parabolæ" and his work on digestion and purgatives, the commentary of Gerard de Solo on the ninth book of Razi's "Al-Manẓuri," and Petrus Hispanus' treatise on logic, all by Abraham Abigdor (Bonet) ben Meshullam ben Solomon; Gerard de Solo's commentary on the ninth book ("Pathology") of Razi and his manual of medicine ("Meyashsher ha-Matḥilim"), a chapter on the relation between astronomy and medicine attributed to Hippocrates, and Bernard de Gordon's "Lilium Medicinæ" and "Prognostic," all by Leon Joseph of Carcassonne; Arnold de Villeneuve's "Digestiva," by Todros ben Moses Yom-Ṭob; Arnold de Villeneuve's "De Judiciis Astronomiæ" ("Panim la-Mishpaṭ") and Sacrobosco's "Sphæra Mundi" ("Moreh ha-Ofannim"), by Solomon ben Abraham Abigdor (the first work was translated by him at the age of fifteen); Arnold de Villeneuve's "Tabula Super Vita Brevis," by Bonenfante of Milhaud; Ibn Rijal's astronomical work from the Latin version of Ægidius or of Petro de Regio ("Mishpaṭe ha-Kokabim,"), by Solomon ben David Davin.
The fifteenth century was for the Hebrew translations from the Latin what the fourteenth was for those from the Arabic; it was the richer in literary productions, but with it the era of translations closed. The most important of the translated works in that century were:
- Abraham ben Joseph ben Naḥmias: Thomas Aquinas' commentary on Aristotle's "Metaphysics."
- Abraham Solomon Catalan: Albertus Magnus' "Philosophica Pauperum" ("Ḳiẓẓur ha-Filosofla ha-Ṭib'it"), and Marsilius' "Questions" on the "Isagoge" of Porphyry, on the Categories," and on hermeneutics.
- Abu al-Khair: Albubather's "Liber de Nativitatibus" ("Sefer ha-Moladot") and Rajil's astronomical work "Completus."
- Asher ben Moses Valabrega: Guy de Chauliac's "Chirurgia Parva."
- Azariah ben Joseph ben Abba Mari: Boethius' "De Consolatione Philosophiæ," the twenty-eighth book of Zahrawi's "Liber Practicæ" (after the Latin of Simon of Genoa), the second book of the "Simplicia" of Dioscorides, and Gerard de Sabbionetta's astronomical work "Theorica."
- Baruch ben Isaac ibn Ya'ish: Aristotle's "Metaphysics" and the tales, "Gesta Romanorum" ("Sefer Ḥanok"), of Petrus Alfonsis.
- Benjamin ben Isaac of Carcassonne: Juan de Burgundia's treatise on the spread of the plague ("Be-'Ippush ha-Awwir weha-Deber," or "'Ezer Eloah").
- David ben Jacob Meïr: John of Gmünd's astronomical work.
- David ibn Shoshan ben Samuel of Avignon: Thomas Bicot's "Textus Abbreviatus Aristotelis, Super VIII. Libros Physicæ et Tota Naturalis Philosophia" ("Toledot Adam").
- Elijah ben Joseph Ḥabillo: Thomas Aquinas' "Quæstiones Disputatæ," "Quæstio de Anima," "De Anima Facultatibus" ("Ma'amar be-Koḥot ha-Nefesh," published by Jellinek in "Philosophie und Kabbalah," Leipsic, 1854), and "De Universalibus"; Questions on Thomas Aquinas' treatise on "Being and Quality" ("She'elot Ma'amar be-Nimẓa ube-Mahut"); Occam's "Summa Totius Logices" and "Quæstiones Philosophiæ"; Aristotle's "De Causa"; and Vincenz de Beauvais's "De Universalibus."
- Ephraim Mizraḥi: Georg Purbach's astronomical work "Theorica" ("Ṭe'oriḳa ha-Niḳra Mahaiak ha-Kokabim").
- Isaac Cabret (or Cabrit): John Sancto Amanelo's "Expositio in Antidotarium Nicolai."
- Joseph ben Benveniste: Joshua ben Joseph ibn Vives al-Lorqui's treatise on the effects of nourishment, and on the simple and compound medicaments ("Gerem ha-Ma'alot").
- Judah Shalom (Astruc) ben Samuel: Petrus Hispanus' "Parva Logica" and his commentary on Hippocrates' "Aphorisms."
- Meïr Alguadez: Aristotle's "Ethics" and "Economics."
- Mordecai Finzi: The Alfonsine Tables.
- Moses ben Abraham of Nîmes: The Alfonsine Tables.
- Moses ben Maẓliaḥ: Serapion's "Simplicia," from the Latin of Gerard de Cremona.
- Phinehas ben Ẓebi ben Nethaneel: Raimundus Lullus' "Ars Brevis."
- Solomon ben Moses Shalom: Antonius Guainerius' "De Febribis" ("Kelal meha-Ḳaddaḥut") and Bartolomeo Montagnana's "Consilium" ("Meha-'Eẓah").
- Thaddeus: Treatise on fevers ("Kelal Ḳaẓer 'al Minhag ha-Ḳaddaḥut").
After the sixteenth century Hebrew translations from the Latin became very scarce. The few works translated included: a treatise on eclipses of the sun and moon ("Ma'amar Nikbad be-Liḳḳuyot Shamshiyyot we-Yeraḥiyyot"), by Moses ben Abraham Sahlun; Albertus' (Magnus?) "Questions and Answers on the Six Natural Things Required by the Body According to the Science of Medicine," by Moses ibn Ḥabib; an ethical work ("Ẓemaḥ Ẓaddiḳ," Venice, 1600), by Leon de Modena; Thomas Aquinas' "Summa Theologiæ Contra Gentiles," by Joseph Ẓahalon; the letters of Seneca, by Judah Leon ben Eliezer Brieli (published in "Kerem Ḥemed," ii. 119 et seq.); Spinoza's "Ethics," by Solomon Rubin ("Ḥeḳer Eloah"); the thirteenth chapter of Tacitus' history, by Solomon Mandelkern.Modern Times.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries very few works of any kind were translated into Hebrew; but with the Haskalah movement in Russia and Galicia the works of prominent European writers began to be rendered into that language. The following is a list of them, given under the heading of the language from which the translations were made:English.
- Aguilar, Grace: "Vale of Cedars" ("'Emeḳ ha-Arazim," by Abraham Shalom Friedberg, Warsaw, 1875).
- Bunyan: "Pilgrim's Progress" (transl. by S. Hoga, London, 1845).
- Byron: "Hebrew Melodies" ("Shire Yeshurun," by Solomon Mandelkern, Leipsic, 1890).
- Cumberland, Richard: "The Jew" ("Ish Yehudi," by Joseph Brill, Wilna, 1878).
- Defoe, Daniel: "Robinson Crusoe" ("Kur 'Oni," by Isaac Moses Rumseh, Wilna, 1861).
- Disraeli, Benjamin: "David Alroy" ("Ḥoṭer mi-Geẓa' Yishai," by Abraham Abel Rekowski, Warsaw, 1880); "Tancred" ("Nes la-Goyim," by Judah Löb Levin, ib. 1883).
- Eliot, George: "Daniel Deronda " (transl. by David Frischman, Warsaw, 1894).
- Longfellow: "Excelsior" (transl. by Henry Gersoni, New York, 1871).
- Milton: "Paradise Lost" ("Wa-Yegaresh ha-Adam," by Isaac Edward Salkinson; also under the title "Toledot Adam we-Ḥawwah," by Samuel Raffalowich, Jerusalem, 1892).
- Mocatta, F. D.: "The Jews in Spain" ("Ha-Yehudim bi-Sefarad," by Israel Be'er Franklin, Jerusalem, 1876); "The Jews in Spain and Portugal, and the Inquisition" (transl. by Isaac Hirsch Barth, Cracow, 1888).
- Shakespeare: "Othello" and "Romeo and Juliet" ("Itiel" and "Rom we-Ya'el," by Isaac Edward Salkinson, Vienna, 1874 and 1878).
- Spencer, Herbert: "Education, Intellectual, Moral, and Physical" ("Sefer ha-Ḥinnuk," by Judah Löb Davidovich, Warsaw, 1894).
- Zangwill, Israel: "Ghetto Tragedies" ("Maḥazot ha-Geṭṭo," by S. L. Gordon, Warsaw, 1896).
- Bernardin de Saint Pierre: "Harmonie de la Nature" ("Sulam ha-Ṭeba'," by Joseph Herzberg, Wilna, 1850).
- Carnot, Hippolyte: "Histoire de la Reévolution Française" ("Ha-Mahpekah ha-Ẓarfatit," by Ludvipol, Warsaw, 1898).
- Daudet, Alphonse: A short novel transl. by Abraham Shalom Friedberg, in "Me-Sifrut ha-'Ammim."
- Florian, Jean Pierre Claris de: "Numa Pompilius" ("Eli'ezer we-Naftali" [?], by Aaron Margolis, Warsaw, 1864; also by Isaac Troller, Wilna, 1867).
- Halévy, Ludovic: A short novel transl. by Abraham Shalom Friedberg, in "Me-Sifrut ha-'Ammim."
- Hugo, Victor: "L'Ane" ("Ha-Ḥamor weha-Filosof," by Wolfgang Gronich, Vienna, 1881); "La Guerre Civile" ("Milḥemet ben Aḥim," by J. Lewner, Warsaw, 1896); "Le Dernier Jour de la Vie d'un Condamne" (transl. by Safran, ib. 1898).
- Kahn, Zadoc: "L'Esclavage Selon la Bible et le Talmud."
- Maspero: "Histoire des Anciens Peuples de l'Orient" (transl. by Ludvipol and Joseph Halévy, Warsaw, 1898).
- Massé, Victor: "Histoire d'une Miette" ("Toledot Pas Leḥem," by Abraham Jacob Tiktin, Warsaw, 1882); "Une Episode de la Révolution Française" (transl. by Moses Weissberg, ib. 1884).
- Maupassant, Guy de: "Selections" ("Ketabim Nibḥarim," 7 vols., Warsaw, 1904-5, by N. Slouschz).
- Mickiewicz, Adam: "Le Livre de la Nation Polonaise et les Pelerins Polonais" ("Sefer 'Am Polonim we-Gere Polonim," by Moses Ezekiel Ascarelli, Paris, 1881).
- Racine: "Esther" (transl. by Joseph Haltren and Solomon J. Rapoport) and "Athalie" (transl. by Meïr ha-Levi Letteris, Prague, 1843).
- Scribe: "La Juive" ("Raḥel ha-Yehudiyyah," by Süsmann Marik, Warsaw, 1886).
- Sue, Eugène: "Les Mystères de Paris" ("Mistere Pariz," by Kalman Schulman, Wilna, 1857-76); "Le Juif Errant" ("Ha-Ẓofeh be-Ereẓ Nod," by Simḥah Posner, Warsaw, 1856-1873); "Les Sept Péchés Capitana" ("Sheba'Ḥaṭṭa'ot She'ol," by Lasar Schapira, in "Meged Yeraḥim").
- Verne, Jules: "Vingt Mille Lieues sous les Mers" ("Be-Meẓulot Yam," by Isaac Wolf Sperling); "Voyage au Centre de la Terre" ("Be-Beṭen ha-Adamah," idem).
- Zola: Three short stories translated by S. Sluschtsch Warsaw, 1898.
- Z—ski, L.: Novel, published by the "Archives Israélites," depicting Jewish life in Russia ("Ḥatan Damim," by Abraham Jacob Bruck, Lemberg, 1878).
- Andersen: "Märchen und Erzählungen" (transl. by D. Frischmann, Warsaw, 1897).
- Bernstein: "Aus dem Reiche der Natur" ("Yedi'at ha-Ṭeba'," by D. Frischmann, ib. 1882-85); "Brahmanische Weisheit" ("Mishle Brakman," by Schorr, Lemberg, 1867).
- Börne, Ludwig: "Briefe aus Paris" (transl. by S. J. E. Triwasch, Warsaw, 1897).
- Campe: "Theophron Musar Haskel," by Baruch Schönfeld, Prague, 1831; transl. also by Arnopolsky, Odessa, 1863); on sea-voyages ("Massa'ot ha-Yam," by Elias Levi, Zolkiev, 1818); "Sittenbüchlein" (transl. by David Zamoscz, Breslau, 1818); "Die Entdeckung Amerika's" ("Meẓi'at Ameriḳa," by Moses Mendelsohn, Altona, 1807; transl. also by David Zamoscz, Breslau, 1824); "Robinson der Jüngere" (transl. by David Zamoscz, ib. 1824).
- Cassel, David: "Geschichte und Literatur der Juden" (transl. by D. Radner, Warsaw, 1880).
- Eckhard: German transl. of Philo's "Legatio ad Caium" ("Malakut Filon ha-Yehudi," by Marcus Aaron Günzburg, Warsaw, 1837).
- Ellenberger, Henri: "Die Leiden und Verfolgungen der Juden" ("Ẓal we-Or," by Hermann Horowitz, Presburg, 1882).
- Francolm: "Die Juden und die Kreuzfahrer" ("Ha-Yehudim be-Angliya," by Miriam Mosessohn).
- Goethe: "Faust" ("Ben Abuyah," by Meïr ha-Levi Letteris, Vienna, 1860); "Hermann und Dorothea" ("Ha-Ẓedeḳ," by Marcus Rothenburg, Warsaw, 1857).
- Grätz, Heinrich: "Geschichte der Juden" ("Dibre ha-Yamim li-Bene Yisrael," by S. P. Rabbinowitz, Warsaw, 1890).
- Güdemann: "Geschichte des Erziehungswesens" ("Ha-Torah weha-Ḥayyim ba-Araẓot ha-Ma'arab li-Yeme ha-Benayim," by Abraham Shalom Friedberg, ib. 1893-95).
- Gustavsohn: "Sammlung von Jugenderzählungen" (transl. by N. Pius, Warsaw, 1896-98): "Die Drei Brüder" ("Shelashot Aḥim"); "Der Hirt und die Königstochter" ("Ha-Ro'eh we-Bat ha-Melek"); "Der Schlaflose König" (the last three transl. by J. Lewner, Warsaw, 1896-98).
- Heine, Heinrich: "Judah ha-Levi," a poem (transl. by Solomon Luria, Warsaw, 1886).
- Heise, Paul: "Sulamit" (transl. by S. Gordon, ib. 1896).
- Herzberg, Frankel: "Die Vergeltung" ("Ha-Gemul," by P. Slonimsky, Odessa, 1867).
- Herzl, Theodor: "Der Judenstaat" ("Medinat ha-Yehudim," by Michel Berkovitz, Warsaw, 1896); "Das Neue Ghetto" ("Ha-Geṭṭo he-Ḥadash," by Reuben Brainin, ib. 1898).
- Hoffmann, Fr.: "Königssohn" ("Ben ha-Melek," by Moses Samuel Sperling, Warsaw, 1876); Unredliches Gut" ("Naḥalah Mebohelet," by Manus Manassewitz, Wilna, 1887).
- Honigmann: "Die Erbschaft" ("Ha-Yerushshah," by Samuel Joseph Fuenn, Wilna, 1884).
- Jellinek, A.: "Der Jüdische Stamm in Nichtjüdischen Sprächwörtern" (transl. by Elimelech Wechsler, in "Ha-Asif," vol. iii.).
- Josephus: "Jüdische Alterthümer" ("Ḳadmoniyyot ha-Yehudim," by Kalman Schulman, Wilna, 1864); "Kriege" ("Milḥamot ha-Yehudim," idem, ib. 1884).
- Kayserling: "Biographische Skizze des Menasseh ben Israel" ("Toledot Manasseh ben Yisrael," by Joseph Lasar Epstein, in "Ha-Karmel," iii.).
- Klopstock, G.: "Der Tod Adams" ("Mot Adam," by Menahem M. Litinsky, Prague, 1817).
- Kohn, S.: "Der Retter" ("Podeh we-Maẓẓil," by Lasar Isaac Schapira, Warsaw, 1866).
- Kompert, L.: "Zwei Trümmer" ("Shete Ḥarabot," by Süsmann Marik, St. Petersburg, 1880; transl. also by Wolf Jawetz, Warsaw, 1887).
- Kotzebue: "Der Schatz" ("Ha-Oẓer," by David Rosenhand, Warsaw, 1845); "Der Arme Poet" ("Ha-Meshorer ha-'Ani," by Isidor Brüstiger, Lemberg, 1884).
- Lazarus, M.: "Der Prophet Jeremiah" (transl. by Reuben Brainin, Warsaw, 1896).
- Lehmann, M.: "Der Graf und Jude" (transl. by Joseph Löb Petuchowsky, in "Ha-Lebanon," 1872; also by Samuel Joseph Fuenn, under the title "Ha-Ḥilluf," Wilna, 1873); "Das Licht der Diaspora" ("Ma'or ha-Golah," by Joseph Löb Petuchowsky, ib. 1890); "Bostanai" (transl. by Samuel Joseph Fuenn, ib. 1872).
- Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim: "Nathan der Weise" ("Nathan he-Ḥakam," by S. Bacher, Vienna, 1866; transl. also by A. B. Gottlober, who rendered the Hebrew in the same meter as the original, ib. 1874); "Philotas" ("Abinadab," by J. Falkovich, Odessa, 1868); "Die Juden" ("Ha-Yehdim," by Jacob Kohn, Warsaw, 1875; also in verse by Hirsh Teller, Vienna, 1881): "Der Freigeist" ("Ḥonen we-Noten," by D. Kohn); " MissSara Sampson" ("Sarah Bat Shimshon," by Israel Frenkel, Warsaw, 1887); " Fabeln ("Lessing we-Sippuraw," by Moses Reicherson, New York, 1902).
- Lippert, Julius: "Kulturgeschichte" ("Toledot Hashlamat ha-Adam," by David Frischmann, Warsaw, 1894-1901).
- Maier: "Die Zerstörung von Betar" ("Harisut Beter," by Kalman Schulman, Wilna, 1858); "Elisha ben Abuyah" (in "Safah Berurah," idem, ib. 1847).
- Manes: "Gesammelte Schriften" (transl. by Joseph Kuttner, Vienna, 1865).
- Meisel: "Die Meiselgasse" (transl. by J. Lewner, Warsaw, 1897).
- Mendelssohn, Moses: "Jerusalem" (transl. by A. B. Gottlober, Jitomir, 1867; also by Vladimir Federow, Vienna, 1876); "Die Sache Gottes" ("Ma'amar 'al ha-Hashgaḥah," by Samuel Joseph Fuenn, Wilna, 1872); "Phädon" (transl. by Isaiah Beer-Bing, Berlin, 1786).
- Mosenthal: "Deborah" (transl. by David Radner, Warsaw, 1880).
- Philippson, Ludwig: "Israelitische Religionslehre" ("Yesod ha-Dat ha-Yisraelit," by Isaac Beer Epstein, Königsberg, 1849); "Miriam die Hasmonäerin" ("Miryam ha-Ḥashmonit," by Joseph Lasar Epstein, Wilna, 1863); "Spanien und Jerusalem" ("Sefarad we-Yerushalayim," by Phöbus Dicker," in "Ha-Asif," vol. iii.); "Die Marranen" ("Nidḥe Yisrael," by Abraham Abel Rakowsky, Warsaw, 1875); "Jacob Tirado" ("Ya'aḳob Ṭirado," by Samuel Joseph Fuenn, Wilna, 1874); "Der Flüchtling aus Jerusalem" ("Ha-Palit," by Miriam Mosessohn); "'Ezra ha-Sofer" (epic poem, transl. by Solomon Mandelkern, Vienna, 1886); "Das Martyrerthum" ("Ḳiddush ha-Shem," by Zupnik, Brody, 1867; "Jojachin" (transl. by S. Bacher, Vienna, 1859).
- Reckendorf: "Geheimnisse der Juden" ("Zikronot le-Bet Dawid," by A. S. Friedberg, Warsaw, 1893-95; under the title "Mistere ha-Yehudim," the first volume was translated by Abraham Kaplan).
- Reclam: "Gesundheitschlüssel" ("Netib Ḥayyim," by A. Schapira, Warsaw, 1887).
- Samter: "Rabbi von Liegnitz" ("Rab le-Hoshia'," by Abraham Shalom Friedberg, Warsaw, 1886).
- Samuely: "Aus dem Finsteren" (transl. by A. Mirsky, in "Keneset Yisrael," vol. iii.).
- Schiller: "Spaziergang Unter den Linden" (transl. by Kalman Schulman, in "Safah Berurah," Wilna, 1847); "Philosophische Briefe" (transl. by Solomon Rubin, Lemberg, 1851); "Die Zerstörung Troja's" ("Harisat Ṭroya," in verse, by Micah Lebensohn, Wilna, 1851); "Die Sendung Moses" ("Dibre Emet," by Elias Levin, ib. 1866); "Die Braut von Messina" ("Medanim ben Aḥim," by Jacob Levin, Brody, 1868); "Die Räuber" ("Ha-Shodedim," by Moses Schulbaum, Lemberg, 1871); "Wilhelm Tell" (transl. by David Radner, Wilna, 1878); "Don Carlos" (by the same, ib. 1879); "Marie Stuart" (transl. by Solomon Kovner, ib. 1879); "Turandot" ("Tirẓah," by Osias Atlas, Przemysl, 1879); "Fiesco" ("Ḳesher Fiesko," by Samuel Apfel, Drohobicz, 1889); "Resignation" ("Amarti Yesh Tiḳwah," by Neumanowitz, Warsaw, 1888). Meïr ha-Levi Letteris translated a number of pieces in "Ayyelet ha-Shaḥar," Vienna, 1860.
- Schleiden, M.: "Die Bedeutung der Juden" ("Mif'alot ha-Yehudim," by Arie Geronim Gordon, Wilna, 1882).
- Schumacher, P.: "Berenika" (transl. by David Frischmann, Warsaw, 1895).
- Steinschneider, Moritz: "Die Jüdische Literatur" ("Sifrut Yisrael," by Malter, Warsaw, 1899).
- Tugendhold, W.: "Der Denunciat" ("Ha-Moser," or Aḥarit Resha'," Breslau, 1847).
- Weisel, L.: "Die Goldene Strasse" ("Reḥob ha-Zahab," by J. Lewner, Warsaw, 1897); "Die Falsche Beschuldigung" ("'Alilot Shaw," by Moses Samuel Sperling, Warsaw, 1878).
- Wertheimer, Ritter von: "Jüdische Lehre und Jüdisches Leben" ("Emet we-Mishpaṭ," by Zupnik, Drohobicz, 1883).
- Zschokke: "Das Abenteuer der Neujahrsnacht" ("Lel Shimmurim," by Isidor Margolis, Wilna, 1878).
- Dante: "Divina Commedia" ("Mar'ot Elohim," by Saul Farmiggini, Triest, 1869).
- Luzzatto, Simeon: "Discorso Circa il Stato Degli Hebrei, ch. xiii." (transl. by Isaac Reggio, in "Iggeret Yashar," vol. i.).
- Marfei: "Merope," a tragedy (transl. by Samuel Aaron Romanelli, Rome, 1903).
- Metastasio: "Isacco" ("'Aḳedat Yiẓḥaḳ," by Elijah Bardach, Vienna, 1833); a poem ("Teshu'at Yisrael bi-Yede Yehudit," by Franco-Mendez, Rödelheim, 1804).
- Kozlowski: "Estherka," a drama ("Ma'aseh Ester," by Israel Frankel, Warsaw, 1889).
- Orzhesko: "Okanski" and "Mirtala" (transl. by Abraham Abel Rakowsky, Warsaw, 1886 and 1888).
- Paulicki: On popular medicine ("Marpe le-'Am," by Bezaleel Judah Eliasberg, Wilna, 1834, 1842; Jitomir, 1886).
- Rinaldo Rinaldini: novel ("Lahaḳat Shodedim," by Ḥayyim Goldstein, Warsaw, 1859).
- Bogron: "Poimannik" ("Ha-Nilkad be-Sheḥitot Anshe Resha'," by Isaac Andres, Warsaw, 1877).
- Frug: Poems ("Kol Shire Frug," by Jacob Kaplan, Warsaw, 1898).
- Harkavy: "Judah ha-Levi" (transl. by Abraham Shalom Friedberg, in "Keneset Yisrael," vol. ii., 1886).
- Hufeland: "Enchiridion Medicon" ("Darke ha-Refu'ot," by Jacob Frohnberg, Jitomir, 1869).
- Krilov: Fables ("Tiḳḳun Meshalim," by Moses Reicherson, Wilna, 1860).
- Lewanda: "Genev i Milost Magnata" ("'Ir u-Behalot," by Samuel Löw Citron, in "Keneset Yisrael," 1886); "Abraham Yosefovich" ("Abraham ben Yosef," idem).
- Rabbinovich, Osip: "Shtrafnoi" ("Ben 'Onesh," by Kanelsky, Odessa, 1865).
- Turgenef: Short story transl. by Abraham Shalom Friedberg, in "Me-Sifrut ha-'Ammim."
- Cervantes: "Don Quixote" ("Abino'am ha-Gelili," by I. Fraenkel, Lemberg, 1871).
- Crescas, Ḥasdai: "Tratado" ("Biṭṭul 'Iḳre Dat ha-Noẓarim," by Joseph ibn Shem-Ṭob, published by Ephraim Deinard, Kearny, N. J., 1894).
- Escudero, Lorenzo (Abraham Peregrino): "Fortalezza del Judaismo y Confusion del Estraño" ("Ẓeriaḥ Bet El," by Marco Luzzatto of Triest [in manuscript]).
- Morteira, Saul: "Tractado de la Verdad de la Ley" ("Torat Mosheh," by Isaac Gomez de Gosa [in manuscript]).
Aside from the Arabic versions of the Bible, the Talmud, and the prayers (with which this article is not concerned), only three Arabic translations from the Hebrew are extant: the travels of Eldad ha-Dani, by an anonymous translator; the Yosippon ("Yusuf ibn Karyun"), by Zechariah ibn Sa'id; and Isaac ibn Crispin's "Sefer ha-Musar" ("Maḥasin al-Adab"), by Joseph ibn Ḥasan, which is supposed by Steinschneider to have been itself an adaptation from the Arabic. Through the Hebrew versions of the Arabic scientific works the treasures of the East and of ancient Greece were opened to the West. Indeed, with the exception of a small number of Latin translations made directly from the Arabic, mostly with the assistance of Jewish interpreters, all the works from which the Latin world learned mathematics, astronomy, medicine, philosophy, and other sciences were translated from the Hebrew versions made from the Arabic. Although it is possible that some among the Latin translations of the twelfth century were made from the Hebrew, the oldest known dates only from the thirteenth century. About 1260 John of Capua translated, under the title "Directorium Vitæ Humanæ" (published by J. Derenbourg, Paris, 1887), Joel's Hebrew version of the "Kalilah wa-Dimnah." He translated also Maimonides' work on the dietary laws and Ibn Zuhr's medical work "Al-Taisir." Toward the end of the same century Armengaud Blasius translated Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon's treatise on the quadrant invented by the latter, under the title "Quadrans Novus" or "Quadrans Judaicus."Into Latin.
During the fourteenth century only a few works were translated from the Hebrew into Latin. Among these were the anonymous "Sefer ha-Ḥinnuk," on the precepts, and Abner of Burgos' "Iggeret ha-Gezerah." During the fifteenth century Latin literature was enriched with many valuable works from the Hebrew. About 1486 Elijah Delmedigo made the following translations: "Quæstiones Tres: i. DePrimo Motore; ii. De Mundi Efficientia; iii. De Esse Essentia et Uno" (Venice, 1501); "Averrois Quæstio in Libro Priorum" ("Analytics," Venice, 1497); Averroes' commentary on Plato's "Republic" ("De Regimine Civitatis"); "Averrois Commentatio [Summa] in Meteora Aristotelis," with fragments from Averroes' Middle Commentary (ib. 1488); "Averrois Commentatio [Media] in Metaph. Aristotelis," i.-vii. (ib. 1560); Averroes' proem to the Large Commentary on Aristotle's "Metaphysics," xii.; Averroes' "De Substantia Orbis"; "Sperma." Delmedigo's protector, Pico de Mirandola, translated at the same time the commentary of Menahem Recanati on the Pentateuch, the "Ḥokmat ha-Nefesh" ("Scientia Animæ") of Eleazar of Worms, and the "Sefer ha-Ma'alot" of Shem-Ṭob Falaquera. The teacher of Pico de Mirandola, Flavius Mithridates, translated thirty-eight fragments of various cabalistic works, Maimonides' epistle on resurrection, Levi ben Gershon's commentary on Canticles, and Judah's "Ma'amar ha-Hawwayah ha-Heḳḳeshiyyah" ("Sermo de Generatione Syllogismorum Simplicium et Compositorum in Omni Figura").
Very important contributions to Latin literature from the Jewish mystical writings were made at the end of the fifteenth century and at the beginning of the sixteenth by Cardinal Ægidius de Viterbo, who translated the Zohar, "Ginnat Egoz," "Sefer Razi'el," "Ma'areket Elahut," "'Eser Sefirot," and other cabalistic works. Among the translations of purely scientific works made in the sixteenth century, the most noteworthy are those of Abraham de Balmes, Kalonymus ben Judah (Maestro Calo), Jacob Mantino, and Moses Alatino. Abraham de Balmes translated Ibn Haitham's astronomical work ("Liber de Mundo") from the Hebrew version of Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon, and the "farewell letter" of the Arabic philosopher Ibn Baga or Avempace ("Epistolæ Expeditionis"). Kalonymus ben Judah translated Zerahiah ha-Levi's Hebrew version of Ghazali's "Tahafut al-Falasifah" ("Destructio," Venice, 1527), Samuel ibn Tibbon's Hebrew version of Averroes' treatise on the intellect ("De Conversione Intellectus," ib.), and Moses ibn Tibbon's Hebrew version of Alpetragius' treatise on astronomy (Venice, 1531). The translations of Jacob Mantino were: "Paraphrasis Averrois de Partibus et Generatione Animalium," with the commentary of Levi ben Gershon; Averroes' compendium of Aristotle's "Metaphysics"; the Middle Commentary on Aristotle's "Isagoge"; books i.-iv. of "Topics" and "Poetics" (Venice, 1550); a commentary on Plato's "Republic"; proem to the Large Commentary on the third book of Aristotle's treatise on the soul; proem to book xii. of Aristotle's "Metaphysics"; the Middle Commentary on Aristotle's "Physics"; Averroes' medical work "Colliget"; the first book of Avicenna's "Canon"; Maimonides' "Shemonah Peraḳim." Moses Alatino translated Moses ibn Tibbon's Hebrew version of Themistius' paraphrase of the four books of Aristotle's "De Cœlo" (Venice, 1574); Avicenna's "Canon"; Nathan ha-Me'ati's Hebrew version of Galen's commentary on a work of Hippocrates ("De Aëre, Aquis et Locis"). Among other works translated into Latin in the sixteenth century were: Ezobi's "Ḳa'arat Kesef" (by Reuchlin, Tübingen, 1512-14, and Jean Mercier, Paris, 1561); Levita's "Tishbi" (by Paul Fagius, 1541, who translated also the "Alfabeta de Ben Sira" and the "Sefer Amanah"); Benjamin of Tudela's travels (by Arias Montanas); the travels of Eldad ha-Dani (by G. Genebrard, Paris, 1584); Levita's grammatical works and Maimonides' treatise on logic (by Sebastian Münster, Basel, 1524 et seq., who translated also the Yosippon, 1529-41); and a list of the 613 commandments from "SeMaG" (1533).Christian Translators into Latin.
With the close of the sixteenth century the era of Latin translations, from the Hebrew, of Arabic scientific works ended, and the Jews ceased to serve as intermediaries between the civilizations of the East and the West. The work dropped by them was taken up by Christians, who had acquired from Jews their knowledge of Hebrew and other Oriental languages, and who made Latin translations of many Jewish writings of the Middle Ages. Foremost among these translators, in the first half of the seventeenth century, were the Buxtorfs; the elder Buxtorf translated the Biblical concordance, "Me'ir Netib," of Isaac Nathan ben Kalonymus and the "Iggeret Shelomim" ("Institutio Epistolaris Hebraica, sive de Conscribendis Epistolis Liber, cum Epistolarum Hebraicarum Centuria," Basel, 1610); the younger Buxtorf, Johannes, translated Maimonides' "Moreh Nebukim" ("Doctor Perplexorum," Basel, 1629) and Judah ha-Levi's "Cuzari" ("Liber Cosri," ib. 1660). Among the other Jewish works translated in the same century the most noteworthy were: Lipman-Mühlhausen's "Sefer ha-Niẓẓahon" (by John Heinrich Blendinger, Altdorf, 1645); the disputations of R. Jehiel and of Naḥmanides; Isaac Troki's "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"; the "Toledot Yeshu"; the "travels" of R. Pethahiah and the "Megillat Wenz" (by Wagenseil); Cordovero's "Pardes Rimmonim" ("De Sanctissima Trinitate Contra Judæos," by Joseph Ciantes, Rome, 1664); Leon de Modena's dialogue on the subject of gambling (by August Pfeifer, Wittenberg, 1665; also by Thomas Hyde, Oxford, 1698, who translated Farissol's "Iggeret Orḥot 'Olam," under the title "Tractatus Itinerum Mundi," ib. 1691); the commentaries of Abravanel and others on Joshua; Moses Ḳimḥi's "Introductio ad Scientiam"; Joseph Yaḥya's commentary on Daniel; "Itinerarum Benjaminis of Tudela" (by Constantin l'Empereur); the "Alphabet of Ben Sira," "Megillat Antiochus," "Otiot de Rabbi 'Aḳiba," a part of Eldad ha-Dani's mythical travels, and Azariah dei Rossi's "Me'or 'Enayim" (all by Bartolocci in his "Bibliotheca Magna Rabbinica"); Abravanel's commentary on Daniel (by Höttinger); the "Idra Rabbah," the "Idra Zuṭa," the "Sifra de-Ẓeni'uta," the cabalistic essays of Naphtali Herz and Jacob Elhanan, the "Sha'arha-Shamayim" of Abraham Cohen de Herrera, and several of the writings of Isaac Luria (by Knorr von Rosenroth in his "Kabbala Denudata," Sulzbach, 1677-78); Maimonides' hilkot "'Abodat Yom ha-Kippurim," "Ḥameẓ u-Maẓẓah," "Ḳiddush ha-Ḥodesh," "Ta'aniyot," "Seder ha-'Abodah," and "Seder ha-Ḳorbonot" (by LudwigCompiegne de Weil, who translated also Abraham Yagel's catechism, "Leḳaḥ Ṭob"); the first part of Gans's "Ẓemaḥ Ṭob" (by Wilhelm Varot and also by Voisin); Zacuto's "Sefer ha-Yuḥasin," various parts of Maimonides' "Mishneh Torah," and part of the account of the travels of the Karaite Samuel ben David; Maimonides' "Yad," Talmud Torah and Teshubah (by Robertus Claverius).
Among the Latin translations of the eighteenth century the most noteworthy are: part of Maimonides' "Mishneh Torah" and extracts from the rabbinical commentaries on Psalms (by Heinrich Jacob Bashuysen, Hanover, 1705; Hanau, 1712); the "Sefer ha-Tappuaḥ" ("Biga Dissertationum," Giessen, 1706); Rashi's commentary on the Bible and the "Yosippon" (by John Frederick Breithaupt, Gotha, 1707, 1710); the Karaite Mordecai ben Nissim's "Dod Mordekai" ("Notitia Karæorum ex Tractate Mardochai," by Wolf, who translated also various fragments of Jewish writings in his "Bibliotheca Hebræa"); selections from the commentaries of Rashi, Abravanel, Ibn Ezra, and Isaiah di Trani on Joshua, and Moses Naḳdan's "Sha'ar ha-Neginot" ("Porta Accentuum," by John Georg Abicht); a part of Elijah Levita's "Shibre Luḥot" (by Nagel, Altdorf, 1758-71); portions of the "Taḥkemoni" (by Ure); Jedaiah Bedersi's "Beḥinat 'Olam" (by Uchtmann); the "Seder 'Olam Rabbah" (by Eduard Maier).
The following is a list of the works which have been translated from Hebrew into modern languages:English.
- Aristotle, Pseudo-: "Sefer ha-Tappuaḥ," on the immortality of the soul (by Isidor Kalisch, Detroit, 1882).
- Bedersi: "Beḥinat ha-'Olam" (by Tobias Goodman).
- Benjamin of Tudela: "Massa'ot" (by Asher, London, 1840).
- Ḥayyuj, Judah: "Two Treatises on Verbs Containing Treble and Double Letters," and the "Treatise on Punctuation" (by John W. Nutt, London and Berlin, 1870).
- Joseph ha-Kohen: "Dibre ha-Yamim" (by Bialloblotzky, London, 1834-36).
- Judah al-Ḥarizi: Portions of the "Taḥkemoni" (by F. de Sola Mendes, in "Jew. Chron." London, 1873).
- Judah ha-Levi: Poems (by M. Breslau, in "Ginze Oxford," London, 1851; Edward G. King, in "Jew. Quart. Rev." vii. 464; Joseph Jacobs, in "Jewish Ideals"; Emma Lazarus, "Songs of a Semite," New York, 1882; Lady Magnus, "Jewish Portraits," London, 1897; A. Lucas, in "Jewish Year Book," London, 1898; Nina Davis, "Songs of an Exile," Philadelphia, 1901).
- Levinsohn: "Efes Damim" (by Loewe, London, 1840).
- Levita, Elijah: "Massoret ha-Massorah" (by Ch. D. Ginsburg, London, 1887).
- Maimonides: "Moreh Nebukim" (by Michael Friedländer, London); parts of the "Mishneh Torah" (by H. Bernard and E. Solowcyczik, ib. 1863).
- Mapu, Abraham: "Ahabat Ẓiyyon" (by Frank-Jaffe, London, 1887).
- Nieto, David: "Maṭṭeh Dan" (by Loewe, London, 1842).
- Pethahiah of Regensburg: "Massa'ot" (by Benisch, London, 1856).
- Romanelli: "Massa' ba-Arab" (by Schiller-Szinessy, Cambridge, 1887).
- Schwarz: "Dibre Yosef," geography of Palestine (by Isaac Leeser, Philadelphia, 1850).
- Troki, Abraham: "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah" ("Faith Strengthened," by M. Mocatta, London, 1851).
- "Yashar, Sefer ha-" (by Mordecai Noah, New York, 1840).
- "Yeẓirah, Sefer" (by Isidor Kalisch, 1877).
- Yosippon: Parts (by Gaster, in "Jerahmeel," London, 1899).
- Abraham ibn Ezra: "Ma'adanne Melek" ("Délices Royales, ou le Jeu des Echecs," by Hollaenderski, Paris, 1864).
- Alfonsi, Petrus: "Sefer Ḥanok," tales (by Picques).
- Bedersi, Jedaiah ben Abraham: "Beḥinat ha-'Olam" (by Philippe Aquinas and Michel Beer).
- Benjamin of Tudela: "Massa'ot" (by Jean Philippe Boratier, Paris, 1734).
- Bilia, David ben Yom-Ṭob ibn: "Yesodot ha-Maskil" (by S. Klein, Metz, 1849).
- Caro, Joseph: Shulḥan 'Aruk (extracts from the first and second parts under the title "Rituel du udaïsme," by Pavly and Neviasky, Orleans, 1896-1901).
- Eldad ha-Dani (transl. by Carmoly, Brussels, 1834).
- Joseph ha-Kohen: "'Emeḳ ha-Baka" ("Vallée des Pleurs," by Julian Sée, Paris, 1881).
- Judah al-Ḥarizi: "Taḥkemoni" (by Carmoly, Brussels, 1843-1844; parts were translated by Sylvestre de Sacy).
- Maimonides: Treatise on poisons ("Traité de Poisons," by I. M. Rabbinowicz, Paris, 1865); "Moreh Nebukim" ("Guide des Égarés," by S. Munk, Paris, 1856).
- Modena, Leon of: Dialogue on the subject of gambling ("Le Joueur Converti," by Carmoly).
- Pethahiah of Regensburg: "Sibbub Rab Petaḥyah" (by Carmoly, who translated also, under the title "Itinéraires de la Terre Sainte," accounts, by various writers, of travels in Palestine).
- Aboab, Isaac: "Menorat ha-Ma'or" (by Jacob Raphael Fürstenthal, Breslau, 1844).
- Abraham ibn Daud: "Emunah Ramah" (by S. Weil, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1882).
- Abraham ibn Ezra: "Yesod Mora" (by Michael Creizenach, Mayence, 1840).
- Albo, Joseph: "Sefer ha-'Iḳḳarim" (by W. Schlessinger, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1844).
- Aristotle, Pseudo-: "Sefer ha-Tappuaḥ" (by J. Musen, Lemberg, 1873).
- Baḥya ben Joseph: "Ḥobot ha-Lebabot" (by Fürstenthal, Breslau, 1835, and by Baumgarten and Stern, Vienna, 1854).
- Bedersi, Jedaiah: "Baḳḳashat ha-Memim" (by Benjamin Wolf Prerau, Brünn, 1799); "Beḥinat 'Olam" (by Isaac Auerbach, Hirsh ben Meïr, Joel ben Joseph Faust, Simson Hamburger, Auerbach, J. Levy, Joseph Hirshfeld, Stern [in verse], and Judah Kron).
- Benjamin of Tudela: "Massa'ot" (by Mordecai Drucker, Amsterdam, 1691).
- Carmoly: "Maimonides und Seine Zeitgenossen" (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1840).
- Caro, Joseph: Shulḥan 'Aruk (by H. Löwe, Vienna, 1896, and by Fr. Lederer, 1897-1901).
- Crescas, Ḥasdai: The fifth chapter of the "Or Adonai" (by Philip Bloch, 1879).
- Duran, Proflat: "Al Tehi ka-Aboteka" (by Geiger, in "Wiss. Zeit. Jüd. Theol." iv.).
- Eldad ha-Dani (Dessau, 1700; Jessnitz, 1723; and in Eisenmenger's" Entdecktes Judenthum," ii. 527).
- Ephraim of Bonn: The persecutions by the Crusaders (by S. Baer, Berlin, 1892).
- Francis, Immanuel: "Meteḳ Sefatayim" ("Die Hebräische Verskunst," by Martin Hartmann, Berlin, 1894).
- Ḥasdai, Abraham: "Ben ha-Melek weha-Nazir" ("Prinz und Dervisch," by Wolf Alois Meisel, Stettin, 1847).
- Isaac Israeli: "Sefer ha-Yesodot" (by S. Fried, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1900).
- Joseph ha-Kohen: "'Emeḳ ha-Baka" (by Wiener, Leipsic, 1858).
- Judah al-Ḥarizi: "Taḥkemoni" (by Kämpf, Berlin, 1845); "Mussare ha-Filosufim" (by J. Löwenthal).
- Judah ha-Levi: "Cuzari" (by D. Cassel and Jelowicz, Leipsic, 1841); poems (by Zunz, Geiger, Kämpf, Sachs, Steinschneider, Heller, and Sulzbach).
- Kalonymus ben Kalonymus: "Eben Boḥan" (by Moses Eisenstadt, or, according to Zedner, by Katzenellenbogen, Sulzbach, 1705; in condensed prose by W. Meisel, Budapest, 1878).
- Lebensohn, Micah Joseph: "Shire Bat Ẓiyyon" ("Gesänge Zion's," by Joshua Steinberg, Wilna, 1869).
- Levinsohn: "Efes Damim" (by Albert Katz, Berlin, 1884).
- Levita, Elijah: "Massoret ha-Massorah" (by Mayer Gottlieb, 1772).
- Maimonides: "Moreh Nebukim" (the first part by Fürstenthal, Krotoschin, 1839; the second, by M. Stein, Vienna, 1864; the third, by Scheyer, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1838); "Millat ha-Higgayon" (by M. S. Neumann, Vienna, 1822; by Heilberg, Breslau, 1828); Introduction to the Mishnah ("Das Jüdische Traditionswesen" (by Fürstenthal, Breslau, 1844); treatise on poisons ("Gifte und Ihre Heilungen," by M. Steinschneider, Berlin, 1873); essays on hygiene (by D. Winternitz, 1843).
- Mapu, Abraham: "Ahabat Ẓiyyon" ("Tamar," by S. Mandelkern, Leipsic, 1885).
- Mendelssohn, Moses: "Sefer ha-Nefesh" (by David Friedländer, Berlin, 1887).
- Modena, Leon of: Dialogue on gambling (by Friedrich Albert Christiani, 1638); the abridged commentary on the Passover Haggadah of Isaac Abravanel, entitled "Ẓeli Esh" (Fürth, 1804).
- Rashi: Commentary on the Pentateuch (Prague, 1833-38).
- Rosenfeld: "Tenubot Sadeh," poems and epigrams (by Fürstenthal, Breslau, 1842).
- Saadia: "Emunot we-De'ot" (by Julius Fürst, Leipsic, 1845; the introduction and first chapter, by Philip Bloch, 1879).
- Schweitzer: "Mazkeret Ahabah" (metrically translated by Fürstenthal, Breslau, 1841).
- Verga, Solomon: "Shebeṭ Yehudah" (by Wiener, Hanover, 1856).
- Wiener: "Gezerat Ostraik" (by Jehiel Michael Moroweyczyk, Cracow, 1852).
- Baḥya: "Tokaḥah" (by Deborah Ascarelli, Venice, 1601).
- Bedersi, Jedaiah: "Beḥinat 'Olam" (in "Antologia Israelitica," 1880).
- Judah al-Ḥarizi: "Mishle Ḥakamim" ("Motti di Diversi Saggi," by Simon Massarani).
- Judah ha-Levi: "Canzoniere Sacra di Giuda Levita" (by S. de Benedetti, Pisa, 1871).
- Luzzatto, S. D.: "Derek Ereẓ" ("Il Falso Progresso," by Pontremoli, Padua, 1879).
- Maimonides: "Moreh Nebukim" (by Jedidiah Moses of Recanati, 1580, and by D. J. Maroni, 1870).
- Mizraḥi, Elijah: Part of the "Sefer ha-Mispar" (by M. Steinschneider, Rome, 1866).
- Modena, Leon of: The abridged commentary of Abravanel on the Passover Haggadah, entitled "Ẓeli Esh."
- Moses: "Vita e Morte de Mose" (by Benedetti de Salvatore).
- Rieti, Moses: The second part of the "Miḳdash Me'aṭ," entitled "Me'on ha-Sho'alim" (by Deborah Ascarelli, Venice, 1601).
- Solomon: "Clavis Solomonis" (by Abraham Colorni).
- Abramovich: "Ha-Abot weha-Banim" ("Otzy i Dyeti," by Leo Bienstok, St. Petersburg, 1867).
- Brandstädter: "Mordekai Kizwiz" (in "Yevreiskaya Biblioteka").
- Eichhorn: "Ha-Ḳerab" (by Osip Rabbinovich, 1847).
- Joshua ben David of Samoscz: "Ẓuḳ ha-'Ittim" ("Byedstoiya Vremion," by Moses Berlin).
- Nathan Nata of Hanover: "Yewen Meẓulah" (by S. Mandelkern, St. Petersburg, 1878).
- Rosensohn: "Shelom Aḥim," on the catholicity of the Mosaic religion (transl. Wilna, 1876).
- Abner of Burgos: "Moreh Ẓedeḳ" ("El Mostador de Justicia"); "Milḥamot Adonai" ("Las Batallas de Dios").
- Alguadez, Meïr: Prescriptions for various diseases (by Joseph ha-Kohen).
- Baḥya ben Joseph ibn Paḳuda: "Ḥobot ha-Lebabot" (by Joseph Pardo, Amsterdam, 1610).
- Elijah de Vidas: Several sections of the "Reshit Ḥokmah" (by David Cohen Lara, under the title "Tratado del Temur Divino," Amsterdam, 1633).
- "Ḥinnuḳ, Sefer ha-": Anonymous work on the precepts, of the thirteenth century.
- Jonah Gerondi: Ethical work (by Joseph Shalom Gallego, or Galigo, under the title "Sendroe [Sendero] de Vidas," Amsterdam, 1640).
- Judah ha-Levi: "Cuzari" (by Jacob Abendana).
- Maimonides: ("Tratado de los Articulos de la Ley Divina," by David Cohen de Lara, Amsterdam, 1652); commentary on the Mishnah (by Jacob Abendana).