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ANATH (from the root ):

The name of an ancient war-goddess of the western group of Semites. The Egyptian way of writing the name of the Phenician-Israelitish city "Beth-Anath" indicates that is here a goddess, and probably also in the name of the place "Beth-Anoth" in Judah and probably also in Anathoth (a plural like from ), the birthplace of Jeremiah. These names, however, which may possibly date from Canaanite times, point to the early worship of Anath in Palestine (Judges, iii. 31). Wellhausen has even suggested that the verse (Hosea, xiv. 9) is to be translated "I am his Anath and his Ashera" ("Skizzen," v. 131), but this is very improbable. The proper name Anati occurs upon one of the El-Amarna tablets: Winckler, in "Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek," v. 236; Flinders-Petrie, "Syria and Egypt," p. 61.

Representations of Anath (W. Max Müller, "Asien und Europa," p. 313) show her provided with helmet, shield, and spear, and with a swinging battle-ax in her left hand. A later picture of Anath (de Vogué, "Mélanges," p. 47) shows her sitting upon a lion, which also typifies her warlike disposition.

Bibliography:
  • Nöldeke, in Z. D. M. G. 1888, xlii. 479;
  • W. Max Müller, Asien und Europa, pp. 195, 313, 330;
  • Tiele, Geschiedenis van de Godesdienst, i. 224;
  • Morris Jastrow, Religion of Assyria and Babylonia, 1898, 2d ed. 1901, p. 153.
L. G.
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