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WIENER-NEUSTADT:

City of Austria; situated thirteen miles south of Vienna. Jews settled in this city probably shortly after its foundation in the twelfth century, records showing that Duke Frederick II., on June 9, 1239, issued an order excluding them from holding those offices "in which they might cause inconvenience to Christians." Also in the spurious charter of the city, alleged to have been granted by Duke Leopold IV., the Jews are mentioned, their rights being based largely on the Austrian laws of 1244 and 1277 pertaining to Jews. The earliest tombstone discovered at Wiener-Neustadt bears date of 1285, and marks the grave of Guta, first wife of a certain Shalom. Tombstones from the years 1286, 1353, 1359, and 1370 have also been preserved.

During the time of the Black Death the Jews of Wiener-Neustadt were fully protected; but during the reign of Emperor Maximilian they were expelled from the city, their synagogue being transformed into a Catholic church (1497). Joseph I. permitted the city to admit the Jews who had fled from Hungary during the Kuruz rebellion; but these left the city again as soon as the uprising had been quelled. In 1848, Jews settled anew in Wiener-Neustadt; but at that time they were not allowed to bury theirdead in the city, and had to take them to the cemeteries of the neighboring Hungarian or Austrian communities. They did not obtain a cemetery of their own until 1889.

Among the earlier rabbis of the Wiener-Neustadt congregation may be mentioned: Thirteenth century: Ḥayyim ben Moses, teacher of Ḥayyim ben Isaac, and author of "Or Zarua' ha-Ḳaṭon"; Moses Taku, author of the philosophical work "Ketab Tamim"; and Ḥayyim, son of Isaac of Vienna. Fourteenth century: Shalom (the teacher of Jacob Mölln), Isaac of Tyrnau, and Dossa of Widdin, the last-named of whom wrote a supercommentary on Rashi's work. Fifteenth century: Aaron Blumlein, one of the martyrs who were burned at Enns (1420) on a charge of desecrating the host; Israel Isserlein (d. 1460); and Josmann Cohen.

Bibliography:
  • Max Pollak, A Zsidόk Bées-Ujhelyen, Budapest, 1892.
E. C. A. Bü.
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